ICT key words

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Data
raw facts or figures
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information
produced when data is placed in context
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Knowledge
derived from information by applying a set of rules to that information
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Transcription error
error made when typing data in using a document as the source of the data.
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Transposition error
Error made when characters are swapped around so they are in the wrong order.
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Range check
Data validation technique which checks that the data input to a computer is within a certain range.
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Validation checks
Checks a developer of a solution creates using the software, in order to restrict the data that a user can enter, so as to reduce errors. They ensure that the data entered is sensible and reasonable.
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Transmission Error
Corruption of data when it is passed through a communication medium (wireless, metal wire or optic fibre)
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Processing Error
Error made when changing data into information, for example performing a calculation or sorting the data into a meaningful order.
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Verification
Checking that data that is entered into the computer perfectly matches the source of the data.
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CAD
Computer Aided Design – the use of computer systems for design of such things as products or buildings or the placement of objects (kitchen units, bathroom fittings.)
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CAM
Computer Aided Manufacturing – the use of computer based systems to control the machinery in manufacturing processes.
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Pro/Desktop
CAD software which allows visualisation of 3D objects on the screen from any viewpoint.
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ArtCAM
Software which turns 2D designs into 3D designs. Also allows user to add textures & text on surfaces.
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ProSketch
Software for graphic design and design of textiles.
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EFT
Electronic Funds Transfer – the process of transferring money automatically without the need for paper work or the delay that using paperwork brings.
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Computer Aided Learning (CAL)
Using a computer interactively for the learning process
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Computer Based Training (CBT)
Using a computer interactively for training, usually on a persons occupation.
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On-line e-learning
Using authoring software to create multimedia products which can be placed on the internet or an intranet to help in the learning process.
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Backup
Copies kept for recovery if data is lost
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Distributed Database
Databases stored on a number of servers, not just one, at different locations.
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Internet
A huge group of networks joined together.
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Extranet
Intranets opened to certain people with permission outside the company.
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Intranet
Internal networks only accessible to people within an organisation.
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Audit Trails
A log of who has viewed or altered the database
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Analogue
A quantity that can have an almost infinite set of values (Continuous waveform) such as temperature, pressure etc
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Digital
A quantity that can be represented by 2 values such as 0 or 1, on or off
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Artificial Intelligence
Reasoning performed by a computer – draws conclusions, produces new information & modifies or writes new rules based on the conclusions
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Expert System shell
Allows people to create their own expert system without the need for programming skills or the need to start from scratch.
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Neural Network
An ICT system that processes information in the same way as the human brain does. It uses an series of processing elements that work in parallel to solve a specific problem. They cannot be programmed but instead learn by example.
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Format
The style in which the information is organised and presented.
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Media
The means by which information is communicated.
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Table
A more visual way of displaying data, especially numeric data.
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Multimedia
Text placed at the top of the document.
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Footer
Text placed at the bottom of a document.
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Bullet Point
A block or paragraph of text that has symbol placed in front to make the section of text stand out.
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Template
In word processing a template specifies such things as the font, font size, page layout, formatting etc. This saves time rather than set these up each time you want a document to appear the same.
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Macro
A series of commands and instructions that you can group together as a single command in order to complete a task automatically. This saves time when you have to perform a task on a regular basis.
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Desktop Publishing
Combining text and pictures on the screen to produce posters, newsletters and brochures.
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Placeholder text
Text that is included just to show the position of the text in a template. You then delete it and replace it with your own text.
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Compression
Storing data in a format that requires less space. Bitmapped graphics such as photos are usually compresses to a fraction of their normal file size as JPEGs.
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Relationship
The way tables are related to each other. They can be one-to-one, many-many or one-to-many.
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Report
The output from a database in which the results are presented in a way that is controlled by the user.
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Tweening
This is when the animation software creates all the in-between frames which means that a smooth movement effect is created.
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Network
A collection of two or more computers that connected in such a way that they can share data and resources.
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Communication Device
A hardware component that enables a computer to connect to and communicate over a network
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Networking Software
System software the establishes, maintains and controls a network communication session
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Data Transfer Media
The means of connection between the computers on a network, through which data is passed
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Standards and Procedures
The rules that govern the way that computers exchange data over a particular network connection.
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Stand-alone system
Refers to computers that are not connected together as a network
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LAN
Local Area Network – very simply confined within a particular geographic location, e.g. a college campus
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WAN
Wide Area Network – very simply, a network or collection of networks that spans a large geographic area, e.g. a bank’s ATM system
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Internet
A large collection of inter-connected computer networks that is essentially spread worldwide. As it is a collection of machines, it is a hardware concept.
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Intranet
A closed private network that uses browser based applications to communicate within an organisation
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Extranet
An organisation’s network that is accessible from outside the organisation, by authorised users
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World Wide Web
A collection of “pages” authored in HTML stored on computers and accessed via the Internet. Essentially a vast repository of information and live services
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E-mail
An electronic messaging service for sending written messages. It allows for attachment of other files.
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File attachment
A means of sending a computer file – document, application, picture etc, along with a written message, generally via e-mail
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Newsgroups
A collection of messages on a similar theme from a range of users – a sort of forum – generally now superseded by weblogs (Blogs)
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Chat room
An online instant message forum where users can exchange written messages Video is becoming commonplace with these facilities
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Search Engine
A sophisticated database application that will list web sites that meet criteria entered as a search condition
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HCI
Human Computer Interface. The point at which the user issues instructions to the computer and receives output
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Natural Language Interface
Allows communication using “normal” English as opposed to using a structured syntax
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GUI - Graphical User Interface
An interface that allows users to communicate with computers using icons and pull down menus
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Command Line Interface
Users type commands directly in at a prompt to make the computer carry out instructions. It is necessary to learn the commands before being able to use this interface.
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Menu Driven Interface
A structured and directed route through a series of provided options is used to operate the system – e.g. using an ATM to withdraw cash
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Window
A program’s operating environment where the user can interact with the application running in that window. Each running application / session will have its own window
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Icon
A small picture uses to represent applications or facilities within a graphical environment
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Menu
Allows a user to make selections from a list.
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Pointer
The little arrow that allows users to navigate a GUI
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WIMP
Windows Icons Menus Pointer – the key characteristics of using a GUI
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Ergonomics
An applied science concerned with designing and arranging things people use so that the people and the things interact most efficiently and safely.
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RSI
Repetitive Strain Injury. A painful muscular condition caused by repeatedly using certain muscles in the same way
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Crime
An illegal act. Breaking the law.
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Malpractice
Improper, careless use or misconduct.
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Data subject
The person whom the personal data is about
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Information Commissioner
The government official who is the person responsible for the Information Commissioner’s Office and the administration of the DPA.
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Software Licence
A document (digital or paper) which sets out the terms by which the software can be used – it will refer to the number of computers on which it can be run simultaneously.
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Database
A large collection of data items and links between them, structured in such a way that allows it to be accessed by a number of different applications programmes.
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Relational Database
A database where the data is held in tables with relationships established between them. The software is used to set up and hold the data as well as to extract and manipulate the data.
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Access Rights
Restrictions to a user’s access to only those files needed in order to perform their job. Also covers what they can do with the data once accessed.
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Password
A series of characters which need to be typed before access to certain ICT resources is allowed.
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Absolute cell reference
A reference to a cell used in a formula where, when the formula is copied to a new address, the cell address does not change.
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Relative cell reference.
A reference to a cell used in a formula where, when the formula is copied to a new address, the cell address changes to take account of the formula’s new position.
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Workbook
A file that contains one or more worksheets.
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Worksheet
A single page showing the worksheet grid into which you can put data and formulas etc.
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IF function
A function that tests a condition to see if it is true or not.
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Simulation
The imitation with a computer program of some system (e.g. an aircraft flight) or some phenomenon that can be described mathematically (e.g. how the economy of the country works.)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

produced when data is placed in context

Back

information

Card 3

Front

derived from information by applying a set of rules to that information

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

error made when typing data in using a document as the source of the data.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Error made when characters are swapped around so they are in the wrong order.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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