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  • Created by: Victoria
  • Created on: 09-03-14 22:38
Distributed computing
Where a series of computers are networked together and each work on solving the same problem. Each computer shares data processing, storage and bandwidth in order to solve a single problem.
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Example of distributed computing
The SETI project searches for intelligent life outside earth and uses a virtual supercomputer made up of many internet-connected home computers to process large amounts of data from radio telescopes
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Advantages of distributed computing
Less cost as supercomputer not needed. Can pass work to computers anywhere in the world using the Internet. Improved performance.
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Disadvantages of distributed computing
Security of data spread out on many computers. Reliance on networks and communication which suffer from breakdowns and are not always reliable
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FTP - ‘File Transfer Protocol’
FTP is a standard set of rules that have been established to allow the exchange of large files over the internet
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Advantages of using FTP
Not limited to file size. Reliable transfer of files between platforms. Greater security in transfer of information. Can have greater control of remote computer (if well developed)
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Requirements of interactive shopping
Trained staff - to create and maintain the website. Database of stock with a user interface. Search facility. Methods of secure payment. Database of customers and orders
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Advantages of e-commerce to customers
Ability to order goods 24/7. Bigger choice of goods from a global marketplace. Save money as goods are generally cheaper online. No travelling is needed as goods are ordered from home. Allows disabled people to do their own shopping
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Disadvantages of e-commerce to customers
Fraudulent sites. Security of credit/debit card details. Hassle of returning goods. Hidden costs such as postage or duties (e.g. VAT) Harder to access the quality of goods before ordering. Loss of the social pleasure of shopping
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Advantages of e-commerce to businesses
Online catalogues are more easily updated. Fewer staff needed. Low start up and running costs compared to traditional stores. Fluid pricing- easy to change prices from day to day. Ability to reach customers at any time (24/7). Global marketplace
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Disadvantages of e-commerce to businesses
Network downtime can be very expensive. Increased competition from abroad offering cheaper goods. Cost of delivery make goods more expensive. Third party delivery companies may be unreliable.
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URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
The recognised method for referring to resources on the internet. If you know the web address of a site you can simply type it in to go directly to the website you want
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Web crawler
A program that automatically and continually browses new web pages (in a systematic manner) and records the information they find and keeps an index (database/list) which can be used by a search engine to enable fast searches
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Boolean search
A Boolean search allows you to combine words and phrases using the words AND, OR, NOT and NEAR to limit, widen, or define your search
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Hyperlinks
Use hyperlinks an area of a web page that contains a link to another location on the Web. You can surf the Internet, which means that you are using hyperlinks to move from one area of interest to another.
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Search Engine
An application accessed over the internet that maintains indexes of web pages and logical operators/keywords to find the information you require
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Features of a Dial-up internet connection
Very slow which limits use. Lower bandwidth than broadband. Downloading takes very long time. Converts digital signals into sounds which are then passed along a telephone line and converted back into a digital signal which the computer can understand
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Features of a Broadband internet connection
Faster access to the internet. Not available everywhere. Higher bandwidth, faster streaming. Cheap phone calls can be made using the internet. More expensive because the monthly subscription for the service.
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Advantages of Mobile access to the internet
Access emails, surf the internet from wherever you are. Can work more productively (do things while you remember to do them). Work from anywhere in the home or office. Make changes to plans easily (hotels or flights).
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Disadvantages of Mobile access to the internet
Feel that you are never away from your work. Can be expensive when accessed from a mobile phone. Increased security issues (hackers, theft). There are many places without access.
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Features of a good HCI
Consistent signposting and pop up information. On Screen Help. Layout Appropriate to Task. Easy use for Disabled Users. Differentiation in user expertise to suit the needs of the user. Clear Navigational Structure
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Teleworking
Using communication software/hardware to avoid a journey
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Telecommunications
Performing work related tasks using communications to send and receive data without being physically present at a central office
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Advantages of teleworking to employees
No time, fuel & money wasted commuting.Can live wherever. Ideal for the disabled. Can fit work around own commitments. Less stress (no traffic etc.)
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Disadvantages of teleworking to employees
Home costs go up (bills for gas, electric, heating etc.). May get distracted at home. Requires more space for the ICT equipment. Lacks social interaction (may feel isolated). May get paid less as there is more competition for such jobs.
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Advantages of employees teleworking to employers
Smaller offices needed so save money on overheads (electricity, gas etc.).Staff are less likely to go off sick. Less office furniture needed. Fewer backup staff needed (cleaners, caretakers etc.). Staff may be more amenable to working flexible hours.
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Disadvantages of employees teleworking to employers
May require a change in the organisational structure of the company. Hard to determine how well the staff are working. Meetings cannot be held so managers struggle to manage the work being done. Employers have to pay for the employees ICT equipment
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Employee Code of Conduct
Consists of rules/agreement drawn up by the senior management which sets out what an employee is/is not allowed to do. It also details the sanctions which will be applied should the employee not obey the rules.
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What does a code of conduct contain?
Responsibilities. Authorisation. Respecting the rights of others. Abiding by current legislation. Complying with licensing agreements. Security policy. Data access permissions. Security of hardware. Penalties for misuse.
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Moral, social and ethical issues associated with working with ICT
Disinformation. Privacy. Legal Issues. Equity. Intellectual property rights.
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Sources of loss of data
Accidental loss of data: Natural Disasters. Fire. Power loss. Poor Training. Deliberate loss of data: Hacking, Viruses, Denial of Service Attacks, Computer or Hardware Theft
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Consequences of data loss
Loss of business and income. Loss of Reputation – Organisations will look bad if they cannot look after data properly. Legal Action – requirements to keep personal data safe by the data protection act of 1998/
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Points in a risk analysis
Identifying the problems. Likelihood of it occurring. Long term and short term consequences of it occurring. How well equipped the organisation is to deal with the task. Disaster recovery plan.
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Prevention of accidental misuse
Data must be backed up on a regular basis or automatically. Backups kept away from the computers, locked in a fireproof safe, and off site. Backups are used with RAID (random array of inexpensive disks) system. Grandfather, father and son principle
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Relational database
A group of tables containing a large collection of data items linked together by primary and foreign keys.
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Distributed database
Stored on a storage device that has several computers connected to it at different locations, but appears as one whole database when opened
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Advantages of a distributed database
If one computer crashed, you still have access to the data on another computer. Faster response because when queries are sent, it will get the information from the nearest source. Non dependence on a central server.
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Disadvantages of a distributed database
Relying on the network to be stable- if it crashes then you cannot access all of the networks data. Security issues if sensitive data is intercepted whilst being transferred. Expensive communication lines so expensive set up cost.
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Primary Key
Unique field that is used to identify a record/ table
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Foreign Key
A field of one table which is also the primary key of another table that is used to establish relationships/ links between tables.
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Data Warehouse
Large archive of organised data that can be used for data mining for decision making. Access to large amounts of past data- can recognise patterns/ trends
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Data mining
Processing information to allow you to see trends or patterns in the data
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Data consistency
If data is correct through all the stages input, processing and output, then it is said to be consistent
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Data redundancy
When data is stored more than once, the unnecessary duplication of data For example customer details being duplicated.
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Data integrity
The correctness of the data (accuracy).
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Data independence
If the data is separate to the application that is using it and so independent from the application. This is useful because new systems can still use the data.
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Data Normalisation
A staged (Mathematical) process which removes repeated groups of data and inconsistencies (prevents data redundancy).
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Factors to consider when changing an IT system
Skills required and not required. Changes to Organisational Structure. Changes in Work Patterns. Changes to Internal Procedures. Effects on the workforce (the fear of change). Overcoming the Resistance to New ICT Systems
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Management information system
An organised collection of people, procedures and resources designed to support the decisions of managers.
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Features of a good MIS
Accuracy of the data. Flexibility of data analysis. Data in an appropriate form. Accessible to a wide range of users. Allow communications between management and employees. Allow individual project planning.
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Features of a poor MIS
Over complicated.Lack of management involvement in the design. Inappropriate hardware and software. Lack of management involvement in initial design. Poor communications between professionals
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Types of changeover
Direct, Parallel, Phased and Pilot
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Direct Changeover
Stops using old system and start using the new system Advantage- Fewer resources needed Disadvantage- If it fails, it can be disastrous to the business
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Parallel Changeover
Running both the old and new system alongside one another until the users are happy with the new system. Advantage- Minimise the risk - If new fails still have the old. Disadvantage- Lots of work and thus expensive time, adds to planning
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Phased Changeover
Implement the system module by module and do not move on to the next module until the one before it is fully working. Advantage- Deal with issues in steps. Disadvantage- Only suitable if system has separate modules
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Pilot Changeover
Piloting the new system branch by branch. Advantage- Smaller scale for a large organization. Disadvantage- Longer to implement
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Corrective Maintenance
correcting problems bugs in the software which are not discovered during testing may need correcting. e.g. Software may have a security risk or the report output from a system are not printed out properly.
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Perfective Maintenance
Improving the performance of the software to make it even better. e.g. Developing online help and tutorials into the software to to help new staff learn the software.
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Adaptive Maintenance
adapt to change in an organisation or business need. e.g. new threats identified or the software needs to be expanded to account for an increased number of users or business needs
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Example of distributed computing

Back

The SETI project searches for intelligent life outside earth and uses a virtual supercomputer made up of many internet-connected home computers to process large amounts of data from radio telescopes

Card 3

Front

Advantages of distributed computing

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Disadvantages of distributed computing

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

FTP - ‘File Transfer Protocol’

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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