ICT Unit 3 Revision

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  • Created on: 17-06-16 13:25
Just in time manufacturing
Uses computer systems to ensure raw process and stock levels are kept to a minimum.
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EDI (electronic data interchange)
Sends data in agreed formats between computer applications in different organisations.
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BACS (bankers automated clearing service)
A method of processing financial transactions electronically.
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Critical success factors (CSF)
The essential areas of activity that must be performed well if the objectives or goals of an organisation or project are to be achieved.
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Payroll
The administration of wages and salaries.
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Human resources
The department that deals with the management of the people who work for an organisation. Sometimes called the personnel department.
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Data portability
The ability to transfer data between different software packages or systems.
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Data transferability
The ability to import data from an old ICT system to a new one when one is being installed.
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Back office systems
The ICT systems that run the internal operations of an organisation and are not accessible or visible to the general public.
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Transaction processing systems
These carry out day-to-day activities of most organisations at operation level.
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Workflow management system
Software that helps organisations analyse and manage their business process by using a computer model to represent the logic of the workflow.
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Metadata
Data about data. It provides information about the content of documents using key words, descriptions and dates.
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Management information system (MIS)
Takes data from internal and external sources and process it to provide information that can be used by manager at different levels to aid effective decision making.
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Decision support systems:
Computer-based systems that analyse data to provide information to help managers make decisions.
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Enterprise systems
Those that serve the enterprise as a whole rather than any individual department.
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Data mining
The extraction of previously unknown and potentially useful information from data.
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Data warehouse
A storage facility for large quantities of data.
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E-commerce system
Designed to support the buying and selling of goods and services, usually over the WWW.
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Strategy
A long term plan for achieving a goal.
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Policy
A statement which defines the organisation’s position on a particular issue and may determine decisions, actions and other matters.
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Offshoring
The transfer of an organisational function to another country, regardless of whether the work is outsourced or stays within the same corporation.
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Protocol
A standard set of rules.
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OSI (open systems interconnection)
A set of protocols allowing computers of different origins to be linked together.
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TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/internet protocol)
The set working practices that allow internet users and providers to communicate with each other no matter what type of equipment they are using.
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Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)
The set of rules used on the WWW for communicating between sites.
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HTTPS
A secure version of HTTP
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File transfer protocol (FTP)
The set of rules that govern hardware and software settings when transferring files over the internet.
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IP address
Uniquely identifies a physical computer linked to the internet.
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Contract of employment
The legal agreement between an employer and employee.
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Disciplinary procedures
Lay down the penalties for breaking company policies. These may include verbal and written warnings, fines, suspension and even instant dismissal for cases of gross misconduct.
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Security of data
Involves making sure that an organisation’s data is correct, is kept confidential and is safe.
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Privacy of data
Involves ensuring that data is not seen or accessed by anyone who is not authorised to view it.
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Deliverables
Documents or systems that must be produced during the various stages of the systems life cycle.
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Approval to proceed
A signed agreement from the client that they are happy for the next stage of the life cycle to commence.
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Data decomposition diagram
A diagram that represents the processes within a system.
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Data flow diagram
A diagram that shows how data moves through a system, showing where the data comes from, what processes it passes through and where it goes to within the organisation.
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Systems flow chart
A diagram used to define the flow of data through a system.
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White box testing
Checks the details of the processing code and algorithms.
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Black box testing
Checks that a given input procedures the correct output, rather than the details of the processing involved.
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Debugging
The process of testing program code to isolate and remove errors.
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Corrective maintenance
Involves putting right any errors that remain in the system after testing.
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Adaptive maintenance
Involves making alterations to respond to changes in the organisation or external changes.
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Perfective maintenance
Involves improve the software to enhance performance.
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Relationship
Describes the link between two entities.
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Entity
In databases, they are things that have data stored about them.
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Attribute
Describes an individual data item within the entity.
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Platform
A combination of hardware and software, in particular operating system software that allows applications software to run.
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Test case
A set of test data and its expected outcomes.
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Disaster recovery strategy
Makes plans to avoid data loss and reinstate a working system within an acceptable period of time.
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Risk analysis
Identifies each element of a successful information system and to place a value to the business on that element. It then identifies any potential threats to that element, predicting the likelihood of the threat occurring, calculating a overall risk.
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Recovery time objective
The length of time that it will take to get a system fully operational after a crisis.
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Data recovery point
The last point at which data can be recovered.
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Failover systems
Used to provide continuous service for mission critical systems. If the main system fails, they immediately switch to standby services to maintain continuity.
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Extranet
A section of organisation’s intranet that is available for external use, for example by suppliers or customers.
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Induction training
The training carried out when a new employee joins an organisation.
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Task-based training
Trains the user to carry out a specific routine activity,
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Skills-based training
Aims to give the user transferable skills that can be used in a variety of ways to perform a range of functions.
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Natural language interface
Allows the user to ask questions in normal words rather than using technical terms.
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Context-sensitive help
Gives information based on what the user was doing when they pressed the help button.
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Third-party manuals
Provided by publishers, other than the software house that produced the software.
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Outsourcing
The transfer of a function of an organisation to an external company that provides this service.
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Multi-sourcing
A framework to enable services to be sourced from more than one service company.
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On-demand
Involves making computer resources available to the client organisation as and when needed.
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Utility computing
A computing service that the customer pays for according to how much they use.
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GPS technology
Global positioning system technology tracks the position of objects using satellites.
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Supercomputers
Mainframe computers that are amongst the most powerful computers at any particular time.
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PAAS
Platform as a service- A category of cloud computing services that provides a platform allowing customers to develop, run and manage applications without the complicity of building and maintaining the infrastructure typically associated with apps.
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SAAS
Software as a service- A software licensing and delivery model in which software is licensed basics and is centrally hosted. Sometimes referred to as an ‘on demand software’.
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Advantages/disadvantages for PAAS
Adv- Quick testing and deployment, dynamic allocation, increased focus on business. Dis- Limited flexibility, customer captivity, data security.
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Advantages/disadvantages for SAAS
Adv- Scalable and flexible, anywhere access, resilience, less internal responsibility. Dis- Security concerns, compliance, and performance.
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Bring your own device (BYOD) advantages/disadvantages
Adv- Lower costs for a business, technology familiarity for users. Dis- Costs for the employees to get their own device, may not suit the businesses functions, security levels won’t be as good.
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Advantages JIT
Adv- Lower stock holding meaning a reduction in storage space which saves rent and insurance costs, less working capital is tied up in stock, stops stock becoming obsolete/perish or become out of date.
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Disadvantages JIT
Dis- There is little room for mistakes as minimal stock is kept, no spare products available to meet unexpected orders. The links between raw materials from which products are made and the customers who purchase them.
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Advantages/disadvantages of bespoke software
Adv- Tailored to you, more flexible, gives you a competitive advantage. Dis- Higher initial costs, takes longer to produce.
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Advantages/disadvantages of off the shelf software
Adv- Cheaper to get, available immediately, lower training costs, community support. Dis- May be overly complicated, may have to compromise on your requirements- unlikely there will be a software that does everything you need.
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Advantages/disadvantages of outsourcing
Adv- Increased quality (professionals), reduced costs (no training or recruitment), allows you to focus on other areas of the business. Dis- Risk of exposing data, communication errors.
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What is the system life cyle?
Analysis, design, constructing, testing, installation and conversion, review and maintenance.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

EDI (electronic data interchange)

Back

Sends data in agreed formats between computer applications in different organisations.

Card 3

Front

BACS (bankers automated clearing service)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Critical success factors (CSF)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Payroll

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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