What are the benefits and drawbacks of encoding data?
Benefits: Less storage space needed, faster to enter/type and easier to back up. Drawbacks: Training needed to understand code, security of data and data theft.
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Benefits and drawbacks of data storage?
Benefits: Quick search for data, easier to make changes to data and easier to back up data. Drawbacks: IT systems failure, virus could destroy data and hacking data.
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What is validation?
An automatic computer check to ensure data is sensible and reasonable.
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Name some validation checks
Type Check, Range Check, Presence Check, Format Check and Length Check.
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Posh words for errors?
Transcription errors- errors transfering data from one place to another Transposition errors- errors from entering data at speed
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What is verification?
Verification is checking the data you have entered against the original source data.
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What examples are there of verification checks?
Double keying, Proof reading and CAPTCHA codes.
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What are batch totals?
This checks meaningful data is correct.
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What are hash totals?
This checks meaningless data.
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What is a parity check?
Adding up the 1's and 0's on both sides of the transmitted data to ensure the data arrives correctly without corruption.
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What is data logging?
Using ICT to record or capture measurments or readings.
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What is control?
Using ICT to control devices.
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What are the benefits and drawbacks of computerised data logging?
Benefits: More accurate readings, can read in intervals and can keep going 24/7 Drawbacks: Initial cost of logging equipment, reliance on equipment and logging too much may take up too much storage.
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What is IPO?
Input Process Output
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of control?
Benefits: Can operate 24/7, will work without wages and is reliable and accurate. Disadvantages: Expensive software costs, computer dependance and the computer can't react to unexpected events like a human.
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What is compression?
The reduction of a file size by removing some content from a file which is un-needed to reduce the file size (not accessible to humans)
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What are advantages and disadvantages of compression?
Advantages: more files can be stored on a storage device, time to put images on a website will be reduced and time to access a website will be faster. Disadvantages: quality of an image can be poorer, music can lose quality and files could be copied
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What file can be compressed?
Sound into MP3, image into JPEG and video into WMV.
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What are the benefits and drawbacks of using websites?
Benefits: can reach a wider range of customers, allows 24/7 store opening and can promote the business. Drawbacks: reliability, crashes, spam.
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What effects the upload times?
size of page, size of content, speed of internet connection and the traffic in your area.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of presentation software?
Advantages: corperate housestyle, consistant navigation and can combine text, images, video and sound. Disadvantages: software can be expensive, compatibility issues with different software and people can read off of slides.
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What is multimedia?
Multimedia is the combination of different elements: sound, text, animation, video or interactivity.
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What are the new trends in multimedia?
E-books, smart phines, 3D TV, X-BOX kinect, Tablet PCs
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Disadvantages of Multimedia
Takes up a lot of space, takes up a lot of memory and processing power which can slow a computure down.
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What different screens can you have?
TFT, LCD, plasma, LED, 3D, HD and ultra high def.
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What types of input devices can you have?
Microphone, graphics tablet, mouse and touch screen.
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What is MIDI?
MIDI stands for musical instrument digital interface and converts analogue signals from a device into digital for the computer to understand.
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What are the features of digital cameras?
All stored digitally so no developing, has a range of effects (red-eye, stead shot etc.), high optical zoom, can support HD, 3D snd video, available in very high MP.
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What are the features of digital video cameras?
Cna be stored digitally (DVD, SD etc.) or on tape, can shoot in HD and 3D, can stream online, range of effects, can also take picures, high MP for shooting videos, LCD preview screen.
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What is linking?
This is where a multimedia product finds the video, animation or sound and displays it. It is s seperate file on the disk.
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What is embedding?
This is where the actual item is inside the product. It makes the product much larger but keeps everything in one place.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of multimedia software?
Advantages: Cna combine images, text, video, sound etc. allows for more creativity and explains ideas more clearly. Disadvantages: Multimedia files take up a lot of space, takes a lot of processing power and it can take a long time to create files.
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What is a bitmap image?
An image made of pixels.
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How can bitmap images be created?
Piant, Photoshop etc.
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What are vector images?
Mathematically based pictures made up of objects.
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How can you create a vector image?
Using programmes such as Photoshop and Serif Draw.
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What is resolution?
Resolution determines the image quality. The higher the resolution the better the quality of the image.
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What is DPI?
DPI stands for dots per inch, this is what resoluion is measured in. The more dots (pixels) the better the quality.
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What is the persistance of vision?
It is when the eyes are fooled into thinking a still image is moving.
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What are the different types of animation?
Flip books, stop motion, key frame/flash animation and 3D animation.
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How are flip books created?
Drawing a series of images on seperate sheets with slight adjustments and flicking through the images.
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What is meant by stop motion?
Making slight changes to each picture and when you play it looks like they're moving.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of using animation in education?
Advantages: can make learning fun, can explain difficult topics, younger people are used to seeing more moving content than text. Disadvantages: Cna be expensive, can be excessive and over used, can take away from the main message.
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What is a mood board?
A mood board is a collage of objects which try to capture a feeling, theme or design.
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Why use mood boards?
can be a centralk focus of ideas in one place, can bring together a lot of different objects, are intended to inspire and generate new ideas.
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What is a storyboard?
A storyboard is a visualisation used to plan a video or amination.
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Why use storyboards?
Allows clear planning, makes an animation reviewable before going into production and makes the creator think about it from the audience point of view.
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What effects can happen using frame rates?
Too fast: blurred Too slow: jumpy
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What is vector animation?
Mathematics is used to draw each frame in position, made up of shapes instead of pixels and is produced using software such as Flash.
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What is bitmap animation?
Based on pixels, smoother than vector but takes up more memory, exactly like flip books_each frame is stored seperately.
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What is claymation?
A stop motion technique, uses clay models that are slightly changed and a picture taken. Played in rapid succession to produce a movie.
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What is pixilation animation?
Stop motion animation with live actors or objects instead of clay models.
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What is rotoscoping?
Taking real footage, tracing over it to produce an animation effect.
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What is tweening?
To complete the start and the end of an animation and the computer fills in the rest.
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What is onion skinning?
When you can see the last few frames and the current one to help you draw the next.
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What is 3D animation?
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What is an animation?
Displaying images in sequence to create the illusion of movement.
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What is meant by the term grouping?
Making a lot of objects grouped as one-making them easier to move.
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What is meant by the term cloning?
Making copies of an object.
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What is meant by the term backdrops?
The background or scene which your animation has.
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Why use MP3?
Good quality sound, portable (plays on a wide range of devices), relatively small file sizes, cheaper than buying an album.
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What sound devices are there?
Microphones, Speakers and headphones.
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What is sound?
Analogue, must be converted into digital for computers to understand.
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Why use sequencers?
You can record and play back a sequence of notes by an artist, great for effects when needed, pre-recorded instruments, multi-track recording.
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What are notators?
Music notation software, music compositon directly on a computer.
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Why use notators?
Can write music using a computer keyboard or MIDI device, adjustments can be made to notes, tempo etc. can combine with lots of different devices to produce a professional track.
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Why use sound wave editors?
Cut, copy, trim, add effects, change format, remove parts, voice disguising, echo, speed, pitch
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Good and bad points for WAV?
Good: nothing removed from sound (high quality), plays on a range of systems Bad points: massive file sizes, takes longer to download, not as many fit on portable devices.
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Good and bad points for MP3?
Good: Range of quality levels, small file sizes, plays on a range of players Bad: Easily copied, some parts of song removed, need an MP3 decoder.
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Good and bad points for WMA?
Good: High quality sound, plays on windows machines, small file Bad: Easily copied, parts of song removed, exclusive to windows and needs a WMA decoder.
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What is a bookmark?
A hyperlinked button to another page on the website.
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What is a homepage?
The main page the user will see on the website.
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What is a leaderboard?
A banner used for advertisement.
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What is a hotspot?
An image used for a link on a webpage.
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What is a hyperlink?
A link that takes the user to another part of a webpage.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of downloading?
Advantages: Can buy specific tracks, can put on a range of devices and can stream throughout your home Disadvantages: Easier to make copies, downloading illegally and no original copy if file is lost-may have to purchase again.
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What is the consequence of copyright?
It is illegal to download music without permission or purpose,you could face legal action or removal fromyour internet service under the three strike legislation, ignorance is not an excuse.
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What is a network?
A series of interconnected computers,linked together either via cabling or wirelessly.
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What is a stand alone computer?
A computer which is not connected to a network.All devices are directly connected to that computer and all data is stored on each individual machine.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of networks?
Advantages: Hardware and software can be shared, data can be shared, centralised backup Disadvantages: A lot of hardware required, security, upgrading (expensive).
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What are the advantages and disadvantagesof stand alones?
Advantages: Fewer hardware required, security, little ICT knowledge required Disadvantages: No hardware or software sharing, individual backups needed and is it harder to communicate.
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What is a LAN?
Local Area Network, a series of interconnected computers restricted to one site.
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What is a WAN?
Wide Area Network, A series of interconnected computers over more than one physical site.
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What is star topology?
Each computer is connected to a central server, server is high specification PC, dependent on central server.
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What are the advantages of using star topology?
Central backup, easy to expand, fewere security problems due to central control and high performance.
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What is ring topology?
All connected to one closed loop, no main computer,all data passes through all computers.
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Whatare the advantages and disadvantages of ring topology?
Advantages: Very fast tranmission rates, not dependent on single server and cheap to install. Disadvantages: Backup issues, to add a new client the whole network must be switched off, a break in the line causes whole network failure.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of bus topology?
Advantages: Cheap to install, extra computers easily added, fast transmission. Disadvantages: Backupissues, security issues,network down is cable is damaged.
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What is an internet?
A series of interconnected computers internationally.
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What is an intranet?
A private internet system that can only be accessed on a LAN (eg.Tesco stock control)
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What is an extranet?
A private internet system that can be accessed externally with a login.
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What is a switch?
Information is switched to the correct socket to be sent to a machine.
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What is a bridge?
Links a LAN to another LAN.
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What is a router?
Allows muliple computers to use the same internet connection.
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What is a gateway?
Connects a LAN to another LAN to form a WAN.
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What examples are there of EPOS hardware?
Barcode scanner, touch screen, scales, keyboard, recipt printer,chip and pin reader, swipe card reader.
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How does automatic stock contral work?
1. Item barcode is scanned 2. Item is located in database 3. One is removed from the amount in stock 4. Checked against re-order level 5. If the re-order level is reached a message is sent to the supplier to order more.
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What are the benefits of automatic stock control?
Ensures that shop is fully stocked, keeps track of all products in a shop:faster and more accurate than a human and keeps customers satisfied: no stock would result in loss of customers.
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What is an operating system?
An operating system is a computer program which contrals everything the computer does.
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What is the functions of an operating system?
Load and run applications, share and manage data, move data to and from storage devices, communicate with peripherals, accaept data from input devices, provide an interface and interpret commands.
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What other interfaces can you have?
Office assistants, online tutorials, customised desktops, vioce driven spplications, touch sensitive devices.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of a GUI?
Advantages: Easy to navigate, easier for novices (WIMP), help guides and keyboard shortcuts for experts Disadvantages: Takes up a lot of memory, a lot of processor power is needed, slow for experts
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of a CLI?
Advantages: fast for experts, little memory needed, little processing power needed and does not need expensive hardware Disadvantages: difficult for beginners to use, have to remember commands and if a mistake occurs you have to re-type the command.
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Whatare the good and bad pionts of menu driven HCIs?
Good: good for begginers, no expert language to learn, does not need a lot of processing power, often used on phones or TV systems Bad: Takes a long time to navigate menus, menus can sometimes not be organised, long menues are tedious for experts.
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What are the good and bad pionts of voice driven HCIs?
Good: empowers the disabled, faster than typing, good for novices, save time Bad: have to train the computer, can't tell the difference between similar sounding words, can't understand strong accents.
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What are the good and bad points of touch sensitive devices?
Good: More intuitive for beginners, interactive and fun, more tactile, more practical and hands on. Bad: Difficult for people with accessibility issues-no feedback, easily damaged,limited in functionality.
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What are the good and bad points of biometrics?
Good: secure way of protecting data, difficult to copy or hack, faster than entering passwords Bad: expensive, person may not be available, if biometric data is stolen it cannot be changed.
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What is e-commerce?
Trading online via the internet, mobile and e-mail communications.
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What are the good and bad points of e-commerce for the customer?
Good: shop 24/7, read reviews, empowers disabled, wider choice, shop from home Bad: Cannot see product, delivery costs, fake sites, difficult to return items.
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What is real-time processing?
Something is processed immadiately. e.g. nuclear reactor
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What is real-time transaction?
When money is processed immediately e.g. booking theatre tickets.
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What is banking?
Banking refers to how money is managed online.
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What banking technology exists?
MICRs, CHIP and PIN, ATM, online banking
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What is MICR?
Data is entered manually on a cheque and is then scanned through a MICR reader, the bank teller then manually checks the details on screen and cheques are then sent to the clearing centre in batches.
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What are the good and bad points of MICR?
Good: quick to read into a machine in a bank, difficult to forge, readable even if torn or folded Bad: MICR machine is expensive, cheques not accepted by many organisations any more.
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How does an ATM machine work?
Data is inputtedusing a keypad and option buttons, data is checked by comparing entered details with the bank record, outputted information is displayed, recipts can be printed and cash given. ATM machines process in real time.
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What are the good and bad points of ATMs for the customers?
Good: 24/7 access, pay bills and others services, available in multiple locations Bad: security issues-cardreaders, not always in covienient places, card fraud.
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What are the good and bad points of ATMs for the banks?
Good: staff can do other things, fewer banks needed Bad: the cost of running ATM systems, have to pay people to manage ATMs.
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What are the features of an ATM?
On-screen balance, select language, request statement.
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What are the different types of data capture in payroll?
Clocking on card, swipe cards, manual entry and timesheet entry.
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How is data checked?
Hash or batch totals, validation checks
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What is robotics?
The practical use of robots in domestic or practical environments. Robots perform a sequence of pre-programmed instructions to carry out repetitive tasks in real time.
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What are bionics?
Applying biological science to electronic systems.
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What are the good and bad points of robotics?
Good: can work in dangerous situations, can work 24/7, no payment needed Bad: expensive to make and program, replaces jobs of humans, people still need to service and repair them.
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What is artificial intelligence?
The idea is that a computer can feel, make decisions and produce ideas. It is trained to think, behave and learn like a human being.
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What is an expert system?
A computer that tries to replicate a human by making decisions based upon answers to questions.
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What are expert systems commonly used for?
To diagnose patients, to produce a solution to a problem.
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What are the good and bad points of expert systems?
Good: used 24/7, faster than training a person, reliable and efficient Bad: Expensive to set up and to keep info up to date, only as god as the knowledge entered and rules applied, does not have common sense, cannot take everything into account.
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What are the expert system elements?
A knowledge base, an inference engine-set of rules, a user interface-allows it to be used, results are displayed in real time.
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How can we protect our data?
Passwords, backups, suitable file names, save regularly and save inside folder structure.
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How can we physically protect data?
SADFLAB- Serial number everything, Alarms on, Doors locked, Fire protection, Lock windows/doors, Avoid ground floor, Blinds closed.
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How can we restrict access to systems?
Usernames and passwords, password policy, access rights, firewalls.
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How can we restrict access to data?
Password protect, restrict access, backups, read only and encryption.
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How can we monitor data?
System checking, checking of audit logs, looking at transaction logs.
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How has IT grown?
Smart phines, internet, social media, games consoles, health care, disabled access to technologyu, entertainment, access to info 24/7, globalisation.
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What does social mean?
How we communicat and interact with others.
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What does economic mean?
Money, jobs, buying, selling.
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What does political mean?
Vioce of the people, voting, freedom of speech.
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What does legal mean?
Laws and crimes and criminal activity.
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What does ethical mean?
What is right or wrong.
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What are moral issues?
The use or doing of things generally impact upon others in some way.
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How does IT effect economics?
Globalisation-service jobs being exported abroad, Call centres-cheaper abroad and VOIP makes it cheap to run anywhere in the world, Companies can sell to a wider market-rise in competition.
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How does IT effect politics?
People can vote online-increase voting, governments restrict some info,freedom writers-anyone can blog or reveal info online, more info available about government activity online.
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How does IT effect ethics?
Social networks-information can be used against people, activity monitored at work, websites track personal info about you, companies selling personal data or using it without permission.
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How does IT effect morals?
Illegal downloads, accessing inappropriate content online, copying information easier, essay anks or sites where you can pay people to do the work for you.
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How has IT effected employment patterns?
Less practical jobs and more service jobs, some jobs have gone and others created because of IT.
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Give examples of what jobs were created and become extinct due to IT?
Disappeared: Welders, Typists, Mailing clerks, car construction Created: computer programmer, web designer, games designer and graphics designer.
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What do people need to be re-trained in?
New software, new hardware, new ways of working.
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How has IT changed working patterns?
People can work from any location-home, can work 24/7, can work internationally-no need to travel, can now collaborate.
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What is teleworking?
Using internet or wireless technology to work from a different location other than a normal place of work.
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What is homeworking?
Using internet or wireless technology to work from home as apposed to a normal place of work.
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What are the good and bad points of teleworking for the employee?
Good: reduced travel costs, can work from the comfort of home, less stress, fkexible hours, empowers the disabled Bad: no home/work divide, may become distracted, little social interaction, difficult to motivate, increased electricity bill.
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What are the good and bad points of teleworking for the employer?
Good: no office space needed, less staff-cleaners, less likely to have staff sickness, wider employee market Bad: cannot monitor staff, security risks on data, employer pay for staff IT.
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What examples are there of homeworking/teleworking jobs?
Web designer, computer programmer, solicitor, games designer, newspaper editor.
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What are the pros and cons of video conferencing?
Pros: can work internationally, no need to travel, meetings can be called at short notice, cheaper Cons: no personal touch, reliance o internet connection, connection can be poor, expensive equipment.
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What can we do with IT to help the environment?
Recycle print cartridges, paper, old hardware, switch off equipment when not in use, recycle old phone.
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How do ICT systems help the environment?
Energy monitor, GPS systems-efficient routes, auto off, fuel efficient cars.
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What is the digital divide?
People who can and can't afford IT, people who can't afford internet access or games consoles, some countries do not have adequate supplies.
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What is the copyright law?
The law which makes it illegal to make extra copies of software to either use or sell without permission.
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What is the physical security measure?
Protecting data by restricting access to the computers that data is stored on.
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What is a log file?
A file that can be used to help track down people who have stolen or caused damage on a computer system.
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What is the data protection act?
The law that sets out rules for collecting, storing and processing personal data.
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What is the computer misuse act?
The law which makes hacking or attempting to hack illegal.
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What is a data subject?
People who have data held about them.
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What is a data user?
The organisation who hold the data.
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What is a data controller?
A person who makes sure the act is followed (DPA).
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What are some of the principles of the DPA?
Fairly and lawfully processed-used, used for limited purposes, adequate and relevant, accurate, not kept for longer than necessary, secure.
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How to remember the principles of the DPA?
SLURPOAF-Secure, Let subjects see, Up-to-date, Relevant, Used for intended purpose, Obtained lawfully, Accurate, For longer than necessary.
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What rights do the data subjects have?
To see what data is being held about them, change anything that is wrong, refuse to have some data stored, refuse to allow processing for direct marketing, complain to the Data Protection Comission, claim compensation.
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What are the exemption to subject rights?
National security, police investigations, examination results are exempt.
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What are the main principles of the computer misuse act?
Hacking is illegal, it is illegal to access unauthorised data with the intent to commit a crime,it is illegal to plant viruses or change unauthorised data.
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What is a hacker?
Unauthorised user who attempts to or gains access to an information system.
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What is a virus?
A virus is a program written to cause mischief or damage to a computer system.
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What health risks do ICT cause?
Eye strain and headaches, repetitive strain injury (RSI), back problems.
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What health and safety procedures do employers have to take when dealing with ICT?
Provide tiltible screens, anti-glare screen filters, adjustable chairs, foot suports and make sure workstations aren't cramped.
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What is RIPA?
It allows authorise people to carry out surveillance or data investigations upon individuals or businesses, For detection and prevention or terrorism and crime.
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What does RIPA let people do?
It gives authorised people permission to: intercept and read electronic communications, read all mail, demand access to personal equipment, monitor internet activity, carry out serveillance on you.
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What are the issues of RIPA?
Invasion of privacy, people encrypting communications
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What is the electronic communications act?
Companies and people can have legal support when trading online.
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What does the ECA cover?
Encryption services- ensures that encryption with credit card transactions are regulated and controlled, makes digital signatures legally binding.
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What are the issues with the ECA?
Not many people know what a digital signature is or how to use one, people do not 100% fully trsut the internet and prefer hand-written signatures.
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What cyber crimes are taking place?
Big company systems and big brand systems are being attacked, mobile phone networks are being hacked and individuals scam money or data.
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What IT crimes exist?
Hacking, viruses, phishing, pharming, botnets, credit card fraud, spam, fake websites, spyware, malware.
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What are the implications of cyber crime?
Loss of money, compromised security, invasion of privacy, identity theft.
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How do you control cyber crime?
Firewalls, anti-virus, different passwrods for everything, spyware software scanned regularly, encryption of information.
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Other cards in this set
Benefits and drawbacks of data storage?
Benefits: Quick search for data, easier to make changes to data and easier to back up data. Drawbacks: IT systems failure, virus could destroy data and hacking data.
What is validation?
Name some validation checks
Posh words for errors?