ICT Theory

What is an organised set of data called?
A database
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What is a set of data associated with one person called?
A record
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What are fields?
The data in each record is different, but each record has the same structure. (each one has a name, d.o.b., phone, etc.) We say that each record contains the same fields.
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What is a field name?
Each field has a field name (e.g. 'Date of Birth')
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It is very important that every record in a database can be individually identified. How is this done?
Each record is given an ID number
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What is a Primary Key?
The unique identity for each individual record
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What is a flat-file database?
One that contains a single table of data
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What is a relational database?
One that contains two or more tables of data connected by links or relationships
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Why is repeated data in a database a bad thing?
It wastes space in the database It takes time to input, typing the same data over and over (and mistakes may be made) It is a pain to update
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What is a foreign key?
When a key field from one table appears in a different table
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What is computer software?
Computer software is a collection of numeric codes which tell the computer what to do
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How is text that is typed into a computer stored?
As numeric codes
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How are images stored in the computer?
As numeric values (different values for different coloured pixels)
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How would you attach an analogue input device to a digital device such as a computer
You will need an analogue to digital convertor (ADC).
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Give an example of a computer peripheral that requires an ADC
A microphone. When you plug a microphone into a computer, you are actually plugging it into an ADC which converts the analogue signals from the microphone into digital data that the computer can then process.
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How would you attach an analogue output device to a digital device such as a computer?
You will need a digital to analogue convertor (DAC)
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Give an example of a computer peripheral that requires a DAC
A loudspeaker or headphones
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Name some areas that have experienced decreased employment due to computers
Manufacturing, secretarial, accounting, newspaper printing
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How have computers affected jobs in manufacturing?
Many factories now have fully automated production lines. Instead of using people to build things, computer-controlled robots are used. Robots can run day and night, never needing a break, and don’t need to be paid!
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How have computers affected jobs in secretarial work?
Offices used to employee many secretaries to produce the documents required for the business to run. Now people have personal computers, they tend to type and print their own documents.
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How have computers affected jobs in accounting?
Companies once had large departments full of people whose job it was to do calculations (e.g. profit, loss, billing, etc.) A personal computer running a spreadsheet can now do the same work.
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How have computers affected jobs in newspaper printing?
It used to take a team of highly skilled printers. The same task can now be performed far more quickly using computers with DTP software and computer-controlled printing presses.
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In what areas have computers increased jobs?
IT Technicians, Computer Programmers, Web Design, Help Desk Staff
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Why have IT Technician jobs been created?
All of the computers in a business need to be maintained: hardware fixed, software installed, etc. IT technicians do this work.
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Why have Computer programmer jobs been created?
All of the software that is now used by businesses has to be created by computer programmers
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Whay have Web Designer jobs been created?
Much of modern business is conducted on-line, and company websites are very important. Company websites need to be designed and built which is the role of web designers.
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Why have more help desk jobs been created?
People often need help using computers, and software applications. Computer and software company have help-desks staffed by trained operators who can give advice.
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What is a microprocessor?
A microprocessor is a small CPU built into a single 'chip'
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What sort of microprocessor is typically used in everyday devices in our homes?
A microcontroller
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What is in a microcontroller?
A CPU Some RAM Some ROM (Used for storing the devices software) Often microcontrollers also contain ADCs and DACs to allow easy connection to devices such as sensors and actuators.
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List some entertainment devices that used microcontrollers
Games consoles DVD players MP3 players
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List some "labour saving" devices that contain microcontrollers
Programmable microwave ovens Programmable washing machines Home security systems Mobile telephones
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What effects do microprocessor controlled devices have on our lives?
More leisure time, easier communication, online shopping
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List some safety issues relating to computers
Trailing cables, spilt drinks or food, overloaded power sockets, heavy objects falling
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How can trailing cables be made safe?
Place cables inside cable ducts, or under the carpet / flooring
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How can spilt drinks and food be avoided?
Keep drinks and food away from computers
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How can overloaded power sockets be made safe?
Never plug too many cables into a socket. Always make sure there are fire extinguishers nearby
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How can we avoid heavy objects falling?
Make sure equipment is placed on strong tables / shelves
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What sensors could you use to detect illegal deforestation?
Light, temperature, movement, moisture
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In what ways does photoshop allow users to manipulate an image?
Crop (cut off bits that you don't want) Resize Distort (e.g. bend, twist, stretch, etc.) Alter colour (e.g. brighten, make black & white, etc.) Add effects (e.g. shadows, glow, texture) Add graphics (e.g. lines, circles, borders, etc.) Add text
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What types of documents could be produced using desktop publishing?
books posters flyers magazine newspapers
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Why is DTP software described as WYSIWYG?
The document looks the same on the screen as it will when it's printed).
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What is a website?
A collection of web 'pages' that provide a mixtures of content: Text Images Animations Video Audio Hyperlinks (to jump to other content)
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'Multimedia' refers to documents / software applications that contain a mixture of what?
text, images, animations, video, audio
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How could you produce a musical score using your computer?
You can use a WYSIWYG editor to write the music on the computer, edit it, print copies, etc.
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List some weather conditions that could be monitored using sensors
Rainfall, temperature, wind-speed, wind-direction
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Why is it useful to use computers to measure things?
Computers do not need to take breaks, more accurate readings, take data readings more frequently, data can be analysed more quickly and easily, can operate in difficult environments
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A computer system is made up of which 3 parts?
Input, processes and output
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What do input devices do?
Input devices called sensors feed data into the computer
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What is a system process?
The computer then processes the input data (by following a set of instructions)
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What do output devices do?
As a result of the processing, the computer can turn on or off output devices called actuators.
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What is a actuator?
An actuator is a device, controlled by a computer, that can affect the real-world.
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List some examples of actuators
Light bulb or LED, Heater, Cooling Unit, Motor, Pump, Buzzer / Bell / Siren
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What is a computer model?
a computer program that attempts to simulate a real-life system. In other words, it is a ‘virtual’ version of something in the real-world.
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Why might computer models be used?
To test a system without having to create the system for real, To predict what might happen, To train people , To investigate a system in great detail
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How might computer modelling be used?
Designing Safer Cars, Weather Forecasting, Building Better Bridges, Running a Business, Training Pilots to Fly an Airplane
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Why is using a computer model a good idea when designing cars?
A computer model of a car can be used to test how safe the design of the car is in a crash. The virtual car can be crashed over and over again,
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Why is using a computer model a good idea when forecasting the weather?
A computer model of a weather system can be used to predict storms. The wind patterns, temperatures, etc. for the whole planet are simulated using very powerful computers
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Why is using a computer model useful when building bridges?
Bridges have to be able to survive extreme weather conditions. It is obvious not practical to build a real bridge and then wait to see if it falls down in a storm. Instead, a computer model of the bridge is created and tested in virtual storms.
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Why is a computer model useful when running a business?
A computer model of a business can be used to help predict future profits.
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Why are computer models useful when training pilots to fly aeroplanes?
Trainee pilots have many hours of lessons in flight simulators before being allowed to fly a real airplane. Pilots can make mistakes without putting anyone’s life at risk.
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What is batch processing?
we can prepare the data into a set or 'batch' and hand it over to the computer to be processed in one go. Once we have prepared the batch of data, no user input is required - the computer works its way through the data automatically.
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What is the advantage of batch processing?
The processing can occur when the computer is not being used for anything else (e.g. at night).
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How is payroll processed?
Working hours data is collected into a batch The data can be processed in one go at the end of the week/month The same calculations will be performed on all the data No user input is required during the processing The processing can be done during qu
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What is "point of sale (POS)"?
A method of inputting the codes of goods purchased - usually a bar-code scanner. The codes are then used to find more information about the goods, such as price, from a database
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What is Electronic Fund Transfer at Point-of-Sale (EFTPOS)?
A system used when you use a bank card to pay for a purchase in a store,
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What are sensors used to measure in hospitals?
Pulse rate (heart beats per minute) Temperature Breathing rate (breathes per minute) Blood oxygen levels Blood pressure
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Several outputs from the computer system let hospital staff the know the patient's condition: What are they?
A large display / monitor shows graphs of pulse, breathing, etc. A loud buzzer / alarm can be sounded if there is a problem to attract the attention of a nurse/doctor A small printer can produce a hard-copy of the data
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What do MRI and CT scanners do?
The complex signals that come back from these huge machines are picked up by sensors and fed into a computer. The computer processes the data, then outputs full-colour images, sometimes in 3D, for the doctor, giving views of the patient's body.
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Why are computerised databases used in hospitals?
Patient data can be easily shared between doctors, pharmacies and other hospitals It is easy to search for and retrieve patient records Doctors can instruct a pharmacy to issue medication for a patient (no paper note needs to be written)
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What data do schools need to manage?
Pupil information (name, contact details, etc.) Staff information (name, bank details for pay, etc.) Timetable (rooms, times, subject, staff, classes, etc.) Pupil attainment (marks, grades, comments, etc.) Pupil behaviour (dates, incidents, notes)
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What advantages do a computerised database bring to a library?
Quick and easy searching for books Easy printing out of book lists / labels Easy tracking of book loans (who has it, when it was borrowed, etc.) Automatic printing of warning letters for borrowers who have not returned books
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What details might a typical library database contain?
Book ID (number / text) Title (text) Author (text) Publisher (text) ISBN (number) Fiction / non-fiction (boolean) Genre / category (text) Cost (number) Date of purchase (date)
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When designing a database, what does the system designer needs to consider?
The type of data being stored (numbers, text, dates, etc.) The size of the data (how long is a typical name, etc.) The field names to use How many records will need to be stored
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a set of data associated with one person called?

Back

A record

Card 3

Front

What are fields?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a field name?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

It is very important that every record in a database can be individually identified. How is this done?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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