ICT Theory Part 1

What is hardware?
The physical components of a computer system
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What are the internal hardware devices?
Processor, motherboards, random access memory (RAM), read only memory (ROM), video cards, sound cards, and internal hard disk drives
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What are the external hardware devices?
Monitors, keyboards, mice, printers
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What is software?
Programs for controlling the operation of a computer or processing of electronic data
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What are the two types of software?
Application software and system software
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What is applications software?
Word processing, spreadsheet, database management systems, control software, measuring software, applets and apps, photo-editing software, video-editing software, graphics manipulation software
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What is system software?
Compilers, linkers, device drivers, operating systems and utilities
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What is the central processing unit?
The part of a computer system that is commonly referred to as the "brains" of a computer. The CPU is responsible for executing a sequence of stored instructions called a program.
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What is the difference between ROM and RAM?
ROM is memory that cannot be changed by a program or user. ROM retains its memory even after the computer is turned off. RAM is a fast temporary type of memory in which programs, applications and data are stored.
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What is an input device?
An input device is something you connect to a computer that sends information into the computer
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What is an output device?
An output device is something you connect to a computer that has information sent to it.
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What is secondary or backing storage?
Storage you use to back up your primary storage eg USB or online storage
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What is the Command Line Interface (CLI)
A command-line interface allows the user to interact with the computer by typing in commands. The computer displays a prompt, the user keys in the command and presses enter or return.
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What are the benefits of CLI?
Experienced users who know the commands can work very quickly without having to find their way around menus. An advantage of command driven programs is that they do not need the memory and processing power of the latest computer and will often run on
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What are the drawbacks of CLI?
Commands must be typed correctly and in the right order or the command will not work. An inexperienced user can sometimes find a command driven program difficult to use because of the number of commands that have to be learnt.
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What is Graphical User Interface (GUI)?
The user chooses an option usually by pointing a mouse at an icon representing that option.
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What are the benefits of GUI?
They are much easier to use for beginners. They enable you to easily exchange information between software using cut and paste or 'drag and drop'.
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What are the drawbacks of GUI?
They use a lot of memory and processing power. It can be slower to use than a command-line interface if you are an expert user. They can be irritating to experienced users when simple tasks require a number of operations.
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What are the benefits of a networked computer over a a stand alone computer?
It can share resources eg printers, files etc
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Give examples of input devices
Keyboard, mouse, touchpad, remote control, joystick, scanners, digital cameras, microphones, temperature sensors, video camera, pressure sensor
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Name some emerging technologies
Artificial intelligence, biometrics, vision enhancement, robotics, quantum cryptography, 3D and holographic imaging, virtual reality
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What are direct data entry devices?
Magnetic stripe readers, chip and pin readers, bar code readers, optical character readers,
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Give examples of output devices
CRT monitor, TFT/LCD monitor, IPS/LCD monitor, LED monitor, touch screen, multimedia projector, printers, speakers, motors, buzzers, heaters, lamps
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How does a router work?
a wireless router will receive the internet data through the phone line and then convert that data into radio signals. These signals are then picked up by the network card in your computer, smartphone or games console and transmitted into internet da
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What does a network interface card do?
This piece of equipment is used to join together multiple computer systems in a local area network (LAN).
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How does WiFi connect to a network?
Wi-Fi allows computers to communicate using radio waves. Wi-Fi hotspots allow devices to share the same internet connection.
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How can Blutooth connect a computer to a network?
Radio waves
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What are the differences between WiFi and Bluetooth?
The main difference is that Bluetooth is primarily used to connect devices without using cables, while Wi-Fi provides high-speed access to the internet.
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What is the name of the device that connects two dissimilar networks together eg your home network and the internet?
Router
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What is the internet?
The internet is made of computers linking up with each other around the world.
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What is the intranet?
An intranet is a private network accessible only to an organization's staff.
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Define Local Area Network (LAN)
A local area network (LAN) is a group of computers and associated devices that share a common communications line or wireless link to a server.
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What are the differences between a LAN and a WAN (Wide Area Network)?
LAN and WAN are both two branches of networking. A WAN covers a large geographical area. Most WANs are made from several LANs connected together. A Local Area Network (LAN) is a private computer network that connects computers in small physical areas
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What security issues are there surrounding the use of computer networks?
data loss. security breaches. malicious attacks, such as hacking and viruses.
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What are the methods of avoiding password interception?
Anti-spyware, changing passwords regularly
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What is the difference between a strong password and a weak password?
A strong password is one that is designed to be hard for a person or program to discover. A typical weak password is short and consists solely of letters in a single case
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Describe some authentication techniques
Biometric methods, magnetic stripes, ID cards, retina scans, iris scans, face scans
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How can you avoid viruses?
Antivirus software, not using unknown storage media to transfer data, risk from downloading software from the internet
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Define encryption
Encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.
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What is the 1st principle of the data protection act
It must be collected and used fairly and inside the law.
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What is the 2nd principle of the data protection act
It must only be held and used for the reasons given to the Information Commissioner.
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What is the 3rd principle of the data protection act
It can only be used for those registered purposes and only be disclosed to those people mentioned in the register entry. You cannot give it away or sell it unless you said you would to begin with.
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What is the 4th principle of the data protection act
The information held must be adequate, relevant and not excessive when compared with the purpose stated in the register. So you must have enough detail but not too much for the job that you are doing with the data.
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What is the 5th principle of the data protection act
It must be accurate and be kept up to date. There is a duty to keep it up to date, for example to change an address when people move.
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What is the 6th principle of the data protection act
It must not be kept longer than is necessary for the registered purpose. It is alright to keep information for certain lengths of time but not indefinitely. This rule means that it would be wrong to keep information about past customers longer than a
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What is the 7th principle of the data protection act
The information must be kept safe and secure. This includes keeping the information backed up and away from any unauthorised access. It would be wrong to leave personal data open to be viewed by just anyone.
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What is the 8th principle of the data protection act
The files may not be transferred outside of the European Economic Area (that's the EU plus some small European countries) unless the country that the data is being sent to has a suitable data protection law.
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What is facsimile communication?
The transmission and reproduction of documents by wire or radio wave.
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What is the difference between fax and email
Fax is an electronic machine by which some printed matter can be sent as it is to a distant receiver's fax machine. Where as the email or electronic mail is typed on the computer screen and is instantly sent to a recipient
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What is video conferencing?
A video conference uses technology to create visual connection between persons in separate places, typically with high-quality video and audio.
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What is audio conferencing?
Audio conferencing is the practice of connecting multiple called parties on a single audio conference call, with multiple lines connected through a conferencing bridge.
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How have computers reduced jobs?
Computers can replace payroll workers, typing pools, car productions workers etc
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How have computers created jobs?
website designers, computer programmers, computer operators
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What positive effects have microprocessors had on lifestyle?
Increased leisure time, social interaction, ability to leave home
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What negative effects have microprocessors had on lifestyle?
Lack of exercise
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What is repetitive strain injury (RSI)?
Pain felt in muscles, nerves and tendons caused by repetitive movement and overuse.
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What other health issues are associated with using computers?
Headaches, backache eye problems
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How can we avoid health issues from using computers?
A fully adjustable chair should avoid poor posture. Screen filters can remove a high percentage of the harmful rays emitted from a computer screen. use wrist rests and have a five-minute break from typing every hour.
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Describe some communication applications
Newsletters, websites, multimedia presentations, music scores, cartoons, flyers, posters
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Describe the use of mobile phones for communication
Phone calls, texting, accessing the internet
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What is Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP)?
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), is a technology that allows you to make voice calls using a broadband Internet connection instead of a regular (or analog) phone line.
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How are data handling applications used?
surveys, address lists, club and society records, school reports, school libraries
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Describe some data measurement applications
scientific experiments, weather stations
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What is the difference between analogue and digital data?
An analogue signal is one which has a value that varies smoothly. Digital waves are stepping, square, and discrete.
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Why does analogue data need to be converted to digital data?
In order to manipulate the data using a microprocessor, we need to convert the analog signals to the digital signals, so that the microprocessor will be able to read, understand and manipulate the data.
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How can we use computer control in applications?
turtle graphics, automatic washing machines, automatic cookers, computer controlled central heating, burglar alarms
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Why might we use computer modelling in spreadsheets?
make alterations and quickly see the outcomes repeat tests several times over learn from "what if?" scenarios model dangerous situations safely
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What are the advantages of using robotics in manufacture and production lines?
Robots in manufacturing help to create jobs by reshoring more manufacturing work. Robots protect workers from repetitive, mundane and dangerous tasks, while also creating more desirable jobs, like engineering, programming
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What are the disadvantages of using robotics in manufacturing and production lines?
Cost, expertise to use and set up, limitations in use
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What are the advantages of using a computer controlled system rather than humans?
Control systems can operate in places that humans would find dangerous or awkward. Outputs are consistent and error free. Computers can process data quickly and machines can operate faster than humans.
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What are the disadvantages of using computer controlled systems rather than humans?
A computer is only as good as its programming, which may contain errors. If a computer is underpowered it might take too long to do something in a time-critical situation.
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What do school management systems do?
Automation tools make light work of taking attendance, creating reports, managing school meals and contacting parents.
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What are booking systems used for?
Online booking of travel, theatre and cinema tickets
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What is Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT)?
Electronic funds transfer (EFT) is the electronic transfer of money from one bank account to another, either within a single financial institution or across multiple institutions, via computer-based systems,
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What is an Automatic Teller Machine (ATM)?
ATMs can be used to for a range of banking services... Withdrawing cash Depositing money Checking the balance of accounts Transferring money between accounts Paying bills
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the internal hardware devices?

Back

Processor, motherboards, random access memory (RAM), read only memory (ROM), video cards, sound cards, and internal hard disk drives

Card 3

Front

What are the external hardware devices?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is software?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the two types of software?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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