ICT Section 5

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  • Created by: Faolan
  • Created on: 10-05-16 09:39
What are the five stages of the system lifecycle?
Analysis/ Design/ SW development or testing/ Implementation/ Maintenance and review
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What happens in implementation stage of the system life cycle?
They type of changeover is considered- parallel, pilot, direct chnage over/file conversion/ Staff training is organised
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What happens in the analysis stage of the System life cycle?
A feasibility study is carried out and the existing system is studied in depth so that a specification for the new system can be produced.
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What are the activities carried out during the analysis?
Current system is investigated/ User needs and problems are identified/ Interviews, questionnaires, observations, document sampling tables/A report is produced is identifying the SRs.
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What is a feasibility study?
To analyse existing system in detail to find out whether or not it is worthwhile to continue with the computerised system. It is necessary to investigate the project sufficiently to ensure that the product is cost effective.
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What is technical feasibility?
Does the technology exist to implement the proposed system? Does the organisation have the equipment to implement the system? Does it have the technical expertise? Will the new system be compatible with the existing system?
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What is Schedule Feasibility?
Can the new system be implemented under a reasonable time frame?
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What is Social Feasibility?
Are current work practices and procedures adequate to support the new system? How will the change due to computerised system affect the employees. Will retraining be necessary? Will people lose jobs?
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What is legal feasibility?
Is there a conflict betweebn the proposed system and the legal requirement? Will the DP act still be adhered to under the new system.
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What happens at the design stage?
The design stage specifies hardware and SW platforms, input and output layouts, file formats, processes, user interface.
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What happens in SW development/ testing?
The SW is actually created, this will involve writing programs in high level languages or creating a package using generic SW such as access. This stage will also involve testing: Unit testing. Acceptance testing
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What are the different methods of fact finding?
|interviews with individuals/ Questionnaires/Observations of workers/ Examining existing documents/
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What is Application testing?
Carried out by the developer/in house. The system is tested against the systems specification. Modules are tested against module specifications. Modules are tested working together, Test schedule will be used.
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What is acceptance testing?
Carried out when the application is ready to be released after is has gone through application testing. A group representing a cross section of end users tests the application using real scenarios. Alpha, Beta testing may be used.
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What are the different types of Maintenance?
Corrective- Fixing problems/ Adaptive- System needs to change as needs of organisation change/ Perfective- Although system runs correctly there is room for improvement.
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Why evaluate a system?
Check if it meets the system specification/ Is it maintainable/ upgradable/ Is the training of staff sufficient.
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What is in the technical documentation?
Systems specification/ DFDs/ A description of each program in the system a flow diagram for each program in the system/A flow diagram for each program in the system/ Organisations, contents and layout of each file used/ Layouts and content of output.
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What is in the user documentation?
it is written for inexperienced users and should be written in non technical language. Include system requirements/ Installation guide/ User Guide/ Help
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What are the advantages of OFF the shelf SW?
Cheap as it is commonly available immediately available for use. It will be thoroughly tested, therefore should have no bugs. If further upgrades become available they will be easy to install.
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What are the disadvantages of OFF the shelf SW?
May not meet user requirements exactly. May have additional functions which may never be used.
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What are the advantages of Custom Made SW?
It will meet user requirements exactly. Support can be geared to the needs of the business.
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What are the disadvantages of Custom made SW?
Will take time to develop new system. May contain bugs that will not be detected at testing time.
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Why is a technical guide produced?
It is needed during system development so that the system meets the SRs. it is needed during system maintenance so that the system can be corrected to meet the URs.
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What is a prototype?
A model of the new system is produced. This is evaluated by the user, feedback is given and the model is modified. This process is repeated.
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What is an evolutionary prototype?
This model may evolve into the final system.
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What is a throwaway prototype?
May be used to design the new system.
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Why use a prototype?
Addresses common problem of customers not knowing all requirments at the beginning of a project. To better capture a Systems requirements. To develop concrete specs for the ultimate system, not to build the ultimate system.
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When is a prototype most useful?
One or a few users and other stakeholders are involved with the system. Possible designs are complete and require concrete form to evaluate fully.
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What are the advantages of using Prototypes?
The model accommodates requirements very well. The customer will see a partially working version of the system early in the process.
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What are the drawbacks of prototyping?
A tendency to avoid creating formal documentation of SRs. Prototypes can become idiosyncratic to the initial user and difficult to diffuse or adapt. They are usually stand-alone systems, thus ignoring issues of sharing data and interactions.
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What are different job roles in the ICT Sector?
Project Manager/ Analyst/ Programmers/ Technician/ End user
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What is a Project manager?
A person who has overall responsibility for a project. They will use specialized SW to enable them to do their job e.g. Process monitoring or budget control.
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What is a programmer?
Writes code from the module specification/ tests the code/ Debugs the code/ Documents the code/ Maintains the code
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What is a systems analyss?
Basically involved in all stages of the life cycle. Works closely with the user. Analyses current system. Talking to user clearly identifying system objectives and thus identifying URs. Is responsible for implementing the new system.
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Explain the role of the technician.
To install HW. To install and configure SW. To maintain ICT systems. To liaise with users
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What is the user involvement in prototype?
The user is continuously involved so that changes can be made at every stage in the development resulting in a better product.
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What is a DFD (Data Flow diagrams)?
Produced during analysis. Depict how data moves through an organisation. Easier to follow than textual descriptions, but show only the movement of data. Easier to use in discussions with the user.
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What is an external entity?
Data source or destination.
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What is process?
An operation performed on the data.
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What is a data store?
Where the data is held e.g. could represent invoices, customer records being held on disk or manually in a filing cabinet.
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What data flow?
Arrow represents movement of data between entities, processor or data stores. The arrow should be labelled to describe what data is involved.
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What is the purpose of an ERD (Entity Relationship diagram)
An ER diagram is a graphical model of a system's data requirements. It identifies the entities about which data is stored and the links between them.
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What happens in implementation stage of the system life cycle?

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They type of changeover is considered- parallel, pilot, direct chnage over/file conversion/ Staff training is organised

Card 3

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What happens in the analysis stage of the System life cycle?

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Card 4

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What are the activities carried out during the analysis?

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Card 5

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What is a feasibility study?

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