ICT

  • Created by: Andrew
  • Created on: 18-04-17 13:59
Hub
small, simple network device that allows multiple computers to communicate. Hubs are an inexpensive piece of network equipment often found in home wired networks and small businesses
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Router
hardware device (wired or wireless) that joins networks together at the network protocol layer
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Network switch
hardware device that joins multiple computers together at the data link network protocol layer
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World Wide Web (WWW)
a collection of multimedia resources accessible via the Internet
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Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
a protocol to manage the assembly of data into packets transmitted between computers over the Internet; ensures reliable transmission; used along with the Internet Protocol (IP).
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Internet Protocol (IP)
a protocol which directs data from one computer to another
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Protocols
a set of known rules that govern the communications between computers on a network
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User interface
the link between the user and the technology that they are using; involves both hardware and software
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Graphical user interface
most commonly used type of interface; uses icons or pictures that are easily understood by the user and can be clicked using an input device. They vary between manufacturers but are generally seen as the most intuitive way of using a computer.
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Input, process, and output (IPO)
input is the capturing of data, process is converting the data into information, and output is the information produced.
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CPU
the Central Processing Unit, is sometimes just referred to as the processor. In computing power terms, the CPU is the important part of a computer system where most calculations are carried out.
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ALU
Arithmetic and Logic Unit - where calculations are done
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IDU
Instruction Decoding Unit
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Control Unit
provides the means of communicating with the machine
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Efficient solution or control
one where the user does not waste time or effort when using it
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Default value
one that a control is set to unless changes are made to it; for example, a paper size may be set to A4 unless the user chooses a different size
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Intuitive solution
one that feels natural and logical to the user
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Robust solution
one that works reliably without failing or causing system errors
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Gantt chart
a time-based grid that shows tasks and resources to accomplish a job
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Normal data
the type of data that will be entered most of the time.It should be accepted by the system and should give the expected result when processed
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Boundary data
data that tests the inside and outside limits of what should be accepted and rejected
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Erroneous data
data that is inappropriate. If possible, validation checks should reject this kind of data, but if this is not possible, it is important that the system can continue to operate
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Transcription errors
can occur when data is being transferred manually, usually from paper-based document. For example an examination mark written on the sheet as 87 might be entered as 57 because the number 8 wasn't written clearly enough
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Client
the person who needs the solution to a problem
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End-user
the person who will actually use the solution
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Audience
the person or people who the final product could be aimed at
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Value judgement
judgement or opinion rather than a fact
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User interface
involves the aspects of the system that a person interacts with to use and control the system; involves input and output devices as well as screen layouts
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House style
used by some organisations to make all the documents and interfaces look consistent; might involve colours, the use of a logo, font sizes, and styles
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Access rights
allow users to do different things. A file might be marked 'read only', so that only users with the password can change it. In a big system, different parts might have different access rights
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Validation
computer-based check that the data being entered is reasonable. It tests the data against a validation rule, for example an exam mark may only be between 0 and 90. An error message is designed to tell the user they have made a mistake
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Error message
tells the user they have made a mistake. It is best if they are clear about the error, for instance 'Please enter a number between 0 and 90' is clearer than 'Data out of range'
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Verification
a check to make sure that data has not been corrupted as it is copied between different parts of a computer system or entered from a source document
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Flat file database
is a single table that stores data records arranged in fields
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Record
a set of data relating to an individual or object
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Field
a single category of data within a record
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Criteria
used to define database queries, such as 'Show all product numbers with sales over £2,000 last month'
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Relational database
stores data in tables that are linked together through primary keys. A primary key provides a unique identifier for each field
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Entity
a thing about which data is held in a database
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Vector
graphics that store instructions for drawing each object on the page, rather than the picture as a whole
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Multimedia
combined use of different media - text, pictures, moving images, and sound
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Interactive
gives the user input choices that affect their path through the material
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HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
the language in which webpages are written
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RSS (Really Simple Syndication) Feed
allows you to see when websites have added new content as soon as it is published, without having to visit the websites you have taken the feed from
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File compression
reducing the size of a file by converting it to a different file format
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Backing storage
stores data and program files within the computer
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RAM
main memory where all locations can be read and written to equally quickly
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ROM
memory that cannot be changed; used to hold programs and data when the computer is being booted
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BIOS
Basic Input / Output System
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Removable media
used to store data so that it can be taken away from the computer, such as floppy discs, CDs, and flash memory
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Mirrored drives
multiple copies of stored data in case the main drive fails
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RAID (redundant array of inexpensive disks)
a set of hard disks used to minimise the chances of data loss
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Hot swap
drive can be removed and replaced without shutting down the server, avoiding down time that can interrupt the operation of the organisation
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PDA
a personal digital assistance is a small computer, about the size of a hand, so sometimes called a palmtop
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Stylus
a small stick used to select or draw on a touch screen
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Radio frequency ID (RFID)
a way of tracking objects by attaching a transmitter that sends a signal giving the serial number and its location
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Optical mark recognition (OMR)
semses the position of marks on data capture forms such as multiple choice exam papers or lottery entry sheets
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Optical character recognition (OCR)
uses a scanner and specialist software to turn paper-based text into computer characters
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Electronic point of sale (EPOS)
uses bar codes to enter product numbers at shop tills that are linked to stock databases
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Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR)
uses magnetic ink to print characters shaped to ANSI standards which can be read and used to direct cheques and other negotiable documents to their proper financial institutions
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Sampling
a way of recording sound digitally so that it can be input into a computer
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Sample rate
number of times per second a sound reading is taken
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Video conferencing
captures and transmits sound and video to allow people in different locations to see and talk to each other
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Pixel
a single dot of an image, usually rectangular or square. 1 Megapixel (Mp) is 1 million pixels
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Bluetooth
a brand name; it is a method of transmitting data over short distances wirelessly
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

hardware device (wired or wireless) that joins networks together at the network protocol layer

Back

Router

Card 3

Front

hardware device that joins multiple computers together at the data link network protocol layer

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

a collection of multimedia resources accessible via the Internet

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

a protocol to manage the assembly of data into packets transmitted between computers over the Internet; ensures reliable transmission; used along with the Internet Protocol (IP).

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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