Ice on the Land

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What is the name of the last ice age?
Pleistocene
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How long ago did the last glacial period end?
around 10,000 years ago
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How much of the Earth's land surface is currently covered by ice?
10%
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What THREE types of evidence is used to identify past temperature changes?
Chemical, Geological and Fossil evidence
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Define the term accumulation
the imput on snow and ice into the glacier
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What is the zone of ablation?
where you get more ablation than accumulation in the lower part of a glacier
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What happens when a glacier has a positive glacial budget?
Accumulation (input) exceeds ablation (output). The glacier gets larger down the valley and the snout advances down the valley
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Why does a glacier retreat in the summer?
there is more ablation than accumulation - more ice melts when its warm. There is a negative glacial budget so glaciers retreat
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Give an example of a retreating glacier?
Rhône glacier in the Swiss Alps
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What evidence is there that the Rhône glacier retreated since the 19th century?
pictures, monitoring data and the amount of melt water
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Explain why this happened?
Global warming and Switzerland has no coast line (the sea has a cooling effect on the land)
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What is a rotational slip?
Ice at the top end of the glacier doesnt move in a straight line - it moves in a circular motion
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Explain what freeze-thaw weathering is?
water gets into cracks in rocks. The water freezes and explands putting pressure on the rocks. The ice thaws, releaseing pressure.
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What is a corrie?
begins as hollows containing a small glacier. As ice moves by rotational slip, it erodes the hollow into a steep-sided shape with a lip at the bottom end
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How does a pyramidal peak form?
when three or more back-to-back glaciers erode a mountain
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Give an example of a pyramidal peak.
Snowdon, Wales
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Explain how a hanging valley forms.
Valleys formed by smaller glaciers (tributary glaciers) that flow into the main glacier. The glacial trough is eroded much more deeply by the larger glacier - when glaciers melt valleys are left at a higher level
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What is bulldozing?
Ice pushes loose material in front of the glacier
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Give one difference between lateral and ground moraine.
Lateral is a long mound of material deposited where the side of the glacier was. Whereas, ground moraine is a thin layer of material deposited over a larger area as a glacier melts
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Where is medial moraine deposited?
In the centre of a valley where two glaciers meet ( the two lateral moraines join together)
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Describe what a drumlin looks like
They are round, blunt and steep at the upstream end, and tapered, pointed and gently sloping at the downstream end
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How would you identify a pyramidal peak on a map?
it has tightly packed contour lines that curve away from a central high point
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Describe what a glacial trough looks like on a map
they are flat valleys, steep sides. No contour lines. Look for wide, straight valley in a mountainous area. There may be a ribbon lake.
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Give an example of a glacial trough
Nant Ffrancon in Wales
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What does a ribbon lake look like on a map.
Flat valley with steep sides surrounding a long straight lake
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Give one reason why areas covered in snow and ice are fragile environments
There's only a short growing season, so plants don't have much time to recover if they're damaged
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Give two social impacts of tourism on areas covered in snow and ice
Increased numbers of people/businesses mean infrastrucutre becomes congested - more difficult for local people and tourists to get around and more job opportunities means more young people will stay in area instead of leaving to find work in cities
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Give two environmental impacts of tourism on areas covered in snow and ice
Glacial landforms like moraines are eroded by people walking on them and there's increased noise, pollution and litter from all the people and traffic in the area
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Give an example of an area in the Alps used for winter sports and sightseeing of glaciers
Chamonix Valley in eastern France at the foot of Mont Blanc (highest mountain in the Alps)
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Give one economic, one social and one environmental impact of tourism in Chamonix
Companies make lots of money e.g. ski lifts companies, types of jobs have changed from farming to resturants/hotels, large amounts of traffic cause pollution
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Give three management strategies used in Chamonix
Avalanche barriers are all around the resort - tourists are less likely to be hurt or killed by avalanches, free public transport - less pollution/traffic, hotels reducing energy use - CO2 emissions are reduced
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Name an industry affected by glacial retreat
Winter sports or sightseeing of glaciers
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Give one economic impact of glacial retreat
when a glacier completely melts, the amount of melt water decreases - industries that rely of supplies of meltwater (agriculture for irrigation and HEP) will make less money and may shut down
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Give one social impact of glacial retreat
if businesses shut down, local people will have to move away to find work. Young people in particular meaning that older family members might be left behind.
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Card 2

Front

How long ago did the last glacial period end?

Back

around 10,000 years ago

Card 3

Front

How much of the Earth's land surface is currently covered by ice?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What THREE types of evidence is used to identify past temperature changes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define the term accumulation

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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