Ice

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What causes glacial periods?
The Earth sometimes recieves less heat from the sun due to an increase in cloud cover or an increase in atmospheric dust caused by volcanic eruptions. It can also be due to a change in the earth's orbit taking it further from the sun
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How many ice sheets existed in the northern hemisphere 18,000 years ago?
4
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What were the names of the ice sheets in North America?
Cordilleran and Laurentide
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What was the extent of the ice coverage in North America and Europe 18,000 years ago?
Norway, Sweden, Canada, Minnesota, Montreal, Boston and New York. The ice also spread down to Germany and across to Northern Russia
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What was the source of ice in Europe?
Alps
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What are the inputs to glaciers?
Snow and avalanches
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What are the outputs to glaciers?
Ice melt and evaporation
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When and where is accumulation at its highest?
Winter and at the top of the mountain
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When and where is ablation at its highest?
Summer and at the bottom of the mountain
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What is the evidence that glaciers are melting?
Increase in accumulation and ablation increasing
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What is the zone of accumulation?
Inputs to the glacial system
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What is the zone of ablation?
Outputs from the glacier
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What is the glacial budget?
Balance between inputs and outputs of a glacier
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What is calving?
The breaking away of ice from a glacier
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What is the snout?
The front of the glacier
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What is the equilibrium line?
An imaginary line that separates the accumulation zone from the zone of ablation
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When would you calculate whether a glacier has retreated or advanced?
You would do it after the summer melting so that you can work out how much the glacier has melted and before it accumulates
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What is abrasion?
A process of erosion involving the wearing away of the valley floor and sides
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What is plucking?
A process of glacial erosion where individual rocks are plucked from the vally floor or sides as water freezes them to the glacier
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What are Drumlins? What do they measure in size?
Smooth, egg-shaped hills. 10m in height and a few hundred metres in length
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What do they show and how?
Direction of glacier. The blunt end, which faces up-valley and a pointed end facing down the valley.
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Chamonix - Case Study - Where is it located?
North - West part of alps, 15km from Swiss border and Italy (via the Mont Blanc Tunnel)
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Name some examples of winter activities in Chamonix
Skiing, snowboarding, cross-country skiing, walking, photography etc
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Name some summer activities in Chamonix
Pony Trekking, Biking, Paragliding, Rafting
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Why has Chamonix promoted itself as a winter and summer resort?
Job security and more income
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Card 2

Front

How many ice sheets existed in the northern hemisphere 18,000 years ago?

Back

4

Card 3

Front

What were the names of the ice sheets in North America?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was the extent of the ice coverage in North America and Europe 18,000 years ago?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the source of ice in Europe?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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