IB standard biology: cells (cell adaptations/cell structure)

HideShow resource information
How are exocrine gland cells adapted for maximum rate of protein synthesis?
Many mitochondria (to release ATP), Highly developed RER (for protein synthesis), Highly developed Golgi and vesicles (to modify/transport proteins through secretory pathway)
1 of 27
How are red blood cells adapted for exchange?
Disc-like shape (large SA), No nucleus/full of haemoglobin (can transport more Oxygen)
2 of 27
How are palisade plant cells adapted for photosynthesis?
Large Vacuole (large SA/pushes chloroplasts to edge of cell), many mobile chloroplasts (site of photosynthesis), cylindrical arrangement (reduces light absorbing cross walls), thin cell walls (short diffusion distance)
3 of 27
What are the organelles in a Prokaryote?
Nucleiod (DNA ring), plasmid(circular DNA), cell wall(stability), flagella(have motor proteins=movement), 70S ribosomes(protein synthesis), sex pili (bacterial conjugation), attachment pili(stick to surfaces), slime capsule, p.membrane, cytoplasm
4 of 27
What is the Slime capsule?
thick polysaccharide layer - prevents phagocytosis (being engulfed by phagocytes) and desiccation (drying out)
5 of 27
What is the cell wall?
Made of peptiglyocan - maintains shape and prevents lysis
6 of 27
What are the ribosomes?
made of RNA and protein - site of protein synthesis
7 of 27
What are the Flagellum?
slender projections - contain motor proteins for movement
8 of 27
What is the plasma membrane?
Phospholipid bilayer - selectively permeable barrier surrounding cell
9 of 27
What are the Organelles in a Eukaryote ?
Nucleus, nucleolus, Golgi apparatus, RER (with ribosomes), SER, Lysosome, cytoplasm, 80s ribosomes, mitochondria, plasma membrane, vacuole
10 of 27
What is the Golgi apparatus?
flattened sacs - receives, processes (adds carbohydrates to proteins to form glycoproteins) and expels proteins into the secretory pathway
11 of 27
What is the RER?
Rough (studded with 70s ribosomes) endoplasmic reticulum - membrane network that transports substances between organelles
12 of 27
What is the SER?
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum - membrane network that produces and transports lipids
13 of 27
What is the lysosome?
stack of vesicles - contains hydrolytic/digestive enzymes for digestion of food, damaged organelles of whole cells
14 of 27
What are the mitochondria?
double membrane structure (with their own DNA and 70S ribosomes) - aerobically respire to produce ATP
15 of 27
What is the vacuole?
sac in the middle of cell, maintains hydrostatic pressure in cell
16 of 27
When did Prokaryotes first evolve?
3.5 bit years ago
17 of 27
When did Eukaryotes first evolve?
2 mil years ago
18 of 27
How do Prokaryotes reproduce?
Using binary fission
19 of 27
How do Eukaryotes reproduce?
Using mitosis
20 of 27
The DNA of Prokaryotes is....
'naked' (in Nucleoid)
21 of 27
The DNA of Eukaryotes is...
enveloped in nucleus
22 of 27
The organelles in Prokaryotes are...
not membrane bound
23 of 27
The organelles in Eukaryotes are...
membrane bound (allowing different environments to exist in each Organelle)
24 of 27
The cell walls of Prokaryotes are made of...
Peptidoglycan
25 of 27
The cell walls (if present) of Eukaryotes are made of...
cellulose or chitin
26 of 27
How does Light microscopy compare to Electron Microscopy?
light = max resolution 200 nm apart, electron = higher resolution (2um apart) and magnification, but not in colour
27 of 27

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How are red blood cells adapted for exchange?

Back

Disc-like shape (large SA), No nucleus/full of haemoglobin (can transport more Oxygen)

Card 3

Front

How are palisade plant cells adapted for photosynthesis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the organelles in a Prokaryote?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the Slime capsule?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Cellular processes and structure resources »