Hypertension, sudden death, angina and shock

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What is normal heart rate (HR)?
60-100 bpm
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What is the HR of tachycardia?
Over 100 bpm
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What is the HR of bradycardia?
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What are the two values of blood pressure (BP)?
Systolic and Diastolic
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What is normal BP?
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What is hypertension?
High BP- over 140mmHg/ 90 mmHg
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Signs and Symptoms of hypertension?
Silent killer, shortness of breath after mild exercise, headache/ dizziness, swelling of ankles, excessive sweating
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Complications of hypertension
Arthrosclerosis, stroke, heart failure, kidney disease, vision problems
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What is hypotension?
Systolic pressure below 100mmHg
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What is Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD)?
Abrupt, unexpected death of CV cause, in which the loss of consciousness occurs with 1-12 hours of the onset of symptoms
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What is SCD related to?
Arrhythmia- loss of normal heart rhythm
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Causes of SCD?
Sudden- underlying congenital, undiagnosed structural heart problem; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HMC); arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy
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What is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HMC)?
Inappropriate change to heart wall- left ventricular
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What is arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC)?
Problems with elctrical activity
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Other causes of SCD?
Direct hit to chest wall- concussion of heart; illicit drug use; race
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What is Angina Pectoris?
Blockage of the coronary arterial circulation- due to atherosclerosis
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Signs and symptoms of angina?
Thoracic pain, radiating pain down shoulders, neck and jaw, precipitated by exercise, persistent indigestion, warning for heart attack
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Risk factors of angina?
.50 years old, high BP, diabetes, smoking, lack of exercise, obesity, poor diet, family history, male
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What are the two types of angina?
Stable and Unstable
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What is stable angina?
Partial block of artery- happens during exercise, no surprise, less than 5 mins
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What is unstable angina?
Blood clot that blocks/ partially blocks artery supplying heart- unexpected, happens during rest, longer than 30 mins, sign of heart attack, cannot be relieved
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What is the treatment of angina?
Stop exercise-rest, lay down with head up, take GTN spray, loosen tight clothing, reassure
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What is the prevention of angina?
Stop smoking, control high BP, reduce cholesterol, be active, maintain healthy body weight, diet
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What is shock?
Blood or fluid loss- hypoperfusion; compensated= decrease in tissue perfusion; decompensated= inadequate tissue perfusion; irreversible= body no longer maintains perfusion
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General signs and symptoms of shock?
Pale and cool skin (early stage), nausea, increase HR, increase breathing rate; drop in BP (Late stage)
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What is Hypovolemic shock?
Severe blood/ fluid loss due to injuries- low BP, pale skin, weak pulse, dizziness, fainting, nausea, thirst
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What is Anaphylactic shock?
Allergic reaction (histamine- vessels leak fluid)- hives, redness of skin, itching, vomitting, low BP, breathing difficulty, swelling of face
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What is Neurogenic shock?
Loss of autonomic NS- spinal cord injury/fear/hypothermia- hypotension, bradycardia, shallow rapid breathing, cold clammy skin, vomitting
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What is the management of shock?
Survey scene; primary survey (DRAB); secondary survery (top to toe); control bleeding; shock symptoms; elevate legs; apply blankets; reassess vitals
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Card 2


What is the HR of tachycardia?


Over 100 bpm

Card 3


What is the HR of bradycardia?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are the two values of blood pressure (BP)?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is normal BP?


Preview of the front of card 5
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