Hydrological cycle Definitions

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  • Created by: avbuck
  • Created on: 05-01-14 17:32
Precipitation (Input)
Precipitation includes all the ways moisture comes out the atmosphere. These include rain, snow, hail, dew and frost.
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Interception (storage)
Where some precipitation lands on vegetation or other structures like buildings and tarmac before it reaches the soil. Significant in woodland areas. Only temporary as water evaporates quickly.
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Vegetation storage
Water that has been taken up by plants.
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Surface storage
Includes water in puddles (depression storage), ponds and lakes.
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Groundwater storage
Water stored in the ground either in the soil (soil moisture) or rocks.
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Channel storage
Water held in a river or stream channel.
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Water table (etc)
The top surface of the zone of saturation where the zone of soil and rock is filled with water in the pores.
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Aquifers (etc)
Porous rocks (with lots of holes in them) that hold water.
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Surface run off (flows and processes)
Water flowing over the land. Can flow over the whole surface or in little channels. Common in arid (no rain) areas where torrential rain hits the land.
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Throughfall (flows and processes)
Water dripping from one leaf to another.
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Stemflow (flows and processes)
Water running down a plants stem or a trees trunk.
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Throughflow (flows and processes)
Water moving downhill through the soil. Faster through things like cracks in the soil or animal burrows.
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Infiltration (flows and processes)
Water soaking into the soil. Affected by soil type, soil structure and how saturated soil is. If heavy storm and saturated, surface run off.
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Percolation (flows and processes)
Where water seeps through the soil into the water table.
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Groundwater flow (flows and processes)
Water flowing slowly below the water table through permeable rock. Rocks that are highly permeable with lots of joints (cracks) have a faster groundwater flow.
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Baseflow (flows and processes)
Groundwater flow that feeds into rivers through river banks and river beds.
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Interflow (flows and processes)
Water flowing downhill through permeable rock above the water table.
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Channel flow (flows and processes) (RIVER DISCHARGE)
Water flowing into the river or stream itself.
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Evaporation (output)
Water turning into a water vapour (liquid to gas)
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Transpiration (output)
Evaporation from plant leaves. Plants take up water through the roots and transport it to their leaves where it evaporates.
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Evapotranspiration (output)
The processes of evaporation and transpiration together.
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River discharge (output)
Or river flow.
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Potential evapotranspiration (PET) (output)
The amount of water that COULD be lost by evapotranspiration.
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Actual evapotranspiration (output)
What actually happens eg desert evapotranspiration high as increases amount of evaporation but not as much transpiration (not enough moisture)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Interception (storage)

Back

Where some precipitation lands on vegetation or other structures like buildings and tarmac before it reaches the soil. Significant in woodland areas. Only temporary as water evaporates quickly.

Card 3

Front

Vegetation storage

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Surface storage

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Groundwater storage

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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