Human Geography- Population Change

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  • Created on: 20-02-14 14:22
What is Population Density?
The amount of people in an area.
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What is Population Distribution?
The way people are spread out over the World.
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What is the Demographic Transition Model?
A graph to show how the birth and death rate change over time.
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What is Crude Birth Rate?
The number of births per 1000 people per year.
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What is Crude Death Rate?
The number of deaths per 1000 people per year.
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What is Life Expectancy?
The number of years a person is expected to live, usually taken from birth.
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what is the Dependancy Ratio?
The relationship between people working and non working ages.
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What is Natural Increase?
The birth rate higher than the death rate: birth rate minus death rate.
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What is Natural Decrease?
The death rate higher than th birth rate: death rate minus birth rate.
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What is Exponential Growth?
A pattern where the growth rate constantly increase- often shown as a J-curve graph.
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What is the Replacement Rate?
A birth rate high enough for a generation to be the same size as the one before it.
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What is the Infant Mortality Rate?
The number of babies that die under a year of age, per 1000 births.
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What is the Population Pyramid?
A diagram to show the % of men and women in different age groups in a country.
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What is a Population Policy?
A plan set up by a government of a country to help control population size.
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What is Annual Population Change?
The birth rate minus the death rate plus or minus migration.
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What are the two things that affect the population size of the world?
The birth rate and the death rate.
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Under what circumstances does natural increase happen to a population?
When the birth rate is higher than the death rate.
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What happens to the death rate at Stage 2 of the DTM?
It starts to fall rapidly as health care is being improved.
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What happens to the birth rate at Stage 3 of the DTM?
It starts to fall quickly as contraception is being introduced.
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Are richer countries or poorer countries more likely to be at the early stages of the DTM?
Poorer countries.
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Give one reason why birth rate is high during Stage 1 of the DTM.
The birth rate is high because there is no use of contraception and people have lots of children because many infants die.
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Give one reason why the birth rate rapidly falls during Stage 3 of the DTM.
The birth rate is rapidly falling due to the equality of women in society and better education. The use of contraception increases and more women work instead of having children.
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Briefly desribe the population structure of a country in Stage 5 of the DTM.
There is more older people than younger people- ageing population.
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Give two social impacts of rapid population growth.
1) Services like healthcare and education can't cope with the rapid increase in population, so not everybody has access to them 2) Children have to work to help support their large families, so they miss out on an education.
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Give one economic impact of rapid population growth.
There is increased poverty because more people are born into families that are already poor.
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Describe what it means for a country to develop in a way that's sustainable.
Developing ina way that allows people to get the things they need, but without sopping people in the future from getting what they need.
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Give an example of a stratergy a country could use to control rapid population growth.
Immigration laws aim to control immigration. Governments can limit the number of people that are allowed o immigrate.
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Name a birth control policy.
The one child policy in China.
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Describe the one child policy.
The policy was introduced in 1979 and it means all couples are only allowed one child. If couples follow the policy they get benefits but couples who don't get fined.
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Give one peice of evidence that the one child policy has been effective.
The poicy has prevented up to 400 million births. The ertility rate has dropped from 5.7 in 1979 to 1.8 today.
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Name a non-birth control policy.
The transmigration policy in Indonesia.
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Describe the transmigration policy.
The government introduced this policy in the 1960's and it aims to reduce the impacts of population growth.
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Give one peice of evidence that the transmigration policy has not been effective.
Millions of people have been moved, but the population still isn't much more evenly distributed.
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What is an ageing population?
When a country has more older people than younge people because less children are being born and more people are survivng to an older age.
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Give two causes of an ageing population.
A low birth rate and a low death rate.
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Give one economic impact of an ageing population.
The working population pay taxes, some of which the government use to pay the state pensions of older people, and to pay for the service like retirement homes and healthcare.
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Give two social impacts of an ageing population.
1)Healthcare services are stretched more because older people need ore medical care. 2)People will need to spend more time working as unpaid carers for older family members. This means the working population have less leisure time.
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Describe one stratergy to cope with an ageing population.
Raising the retirement age- people stay in work longer and conribute to state pensions and personal pensions for longer. They will also claim the state pension for less time.
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Describe one problem caused by the UK's ageing population.
More elderly people are living in poverty- the working population isn't large enough to pay for a decent pension, and many people don't have other savings.
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Give one stratergy used by the UK Government to cope with an ageing population.
Encourage women to have children- working family tax credits support women (and men) who go back to work after their children are born. This makes it more affordable for couples to have children.
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Define 'migration'.
Migration is the movement of people from one area to another area.
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What is it called when a person moves into an area?
When a person moves into an area, it's called immigration. The people are called immigrants.
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Explain what 'pull factors' are.
Pull factors are things about a person's destination that attracts them.
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Give an example of a pull factor.
They are usually positive things such as job oppotunities or a better standard of living. For example, economic migrants are people who move voluntarily from poor places to richer places looking for jobs or higher wages, e.g. from Mexico to the USA.
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Give one negative impact of migration on a source country.
There is a labour shortge- it's mostly people of working age that emigrate.
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Give one positive impact of migration on a receiving country.
Migrant workers pay taxes that help to fund services.
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Describe an example of economic migration within the EU.
More than half a million people from Polad have come to the UK between 2004 and 2007. This is because of the ease of migration, there was more work and higher wages and there was a good exchange rate.
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Give one impact on the source country, and one impact on the receiving country.
The Polish econmy was boosted by the money sent home from emigrants- around €3 billion was sent to Poland from abroard in 2006. The UK population went up slightly.
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Describe an example of refugee migration in the EU.
Huge numbers of refugees migrate from Afria to Spain. Many of these migrants are refugees from wars in central or western African countries.
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Describe the push factors.
There is a threat of violence and death during the wars.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is Population Distribution?


The way people are spread out over the World.

Card 3


What is the Demographic Transition Model?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is Crude Birth Rate?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is Crude Death Rate?


Preview of the front of card 5
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Mr A Gibson


50 useful cards to flip and test yourself. Covers all the main words and phrases associated with the topic at GCSE level.

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