Human Geography (continued)

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Why do people choose to cluster in the same area?
1)Support from other 2)Familiar culture 3)Specialist 4)Safety in numbers 5)Employment factors
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How do people from different ethic groups try to reduce segregation?
1)increasing children's education 2)Employment through initiatives 3)Community involvement 4)Providing facilities
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What are the strategies to improve living in squatter settlements in poorer parts of the world?
1) Self-help, where local authorities support residents of the SS in improving their homes e.g.replacing flimsy materials with more permanent bricks and concrete2)Site&Service,land is identifies for the scheme,planned in advance e.g.building schools
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Give an example of the problems of rapid urbanisation poorer parts of the world
3rd of December 1984, Bhopal in India, where poisonous gas escaped from a chemical plant and killed 3,000 people, 50,000 suffered and more died later on. Lead to environmental problems of the air and water pollution and disposal waste.
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How do you reduce the problems of rapid urbanisation?
1)Guidelines to indicate what is allowed and what is not. 2)limits must be monitored and enforced to ensure Industrialisation e.g. do not exceed the stated limits
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How can urban living be sustainable?
1)Conserving historic and natural environment 2)Reducing and safely disposing waste 3)Providing adequate open spaces 4)involving local people 5)Providing efficient public transport system
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What pressure are being placed on the rural-urban fringe?
1)Demand for land, due to growth of urban areas and increase population 2)Retail outlets, development of out-of-town retail parks 3)Commuting villages, demand for jobs and service. 4)leisure, e.g.Box Hill is used for walks and cycling
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Locations of remote rural area in the UK
1)Rural depopulation in Snowdonia, it is the net emigration of people from an area. 2)Decline in hill farming, where the number of farmers is decreasing nationally, due to economic pressure
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How can rural living be made sustainable?
1)Environmental stewardship scheme e.g.conserve wildlife, increase biodiversity, landscape quality, provide flood management and promote public transport 2)Rural development programmes,to support sustainable farming methods & more environmental work
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What are the schemes to help improve the quality of rural life?
1)Rural transport partnership, distances are longer and customers fewer. 2)Village shop development scheme, e.g.save time and energy, carbon emissions are lowered, cars retain local services and sense of community is enhanced
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What are the two important programmes aims at supporting the local economy in rural areas?
1)Rural challenge, involves 11 rural regeneration schemes in 1990s to generate jobs. 2)Objective 1, money is funded from european regional development, social fund, agriculture guidance and financial instrument
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What are the factors affection farming?
1)Physical factors, natural drainage, temperature, rock type, precipitation. 2)Human factors, pesticide, labour skills, fertilisers and machinery
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What are the impacts of agribusiness?
1)Use of chemicals, e.g. pesticides used to control pests 2)Damage to ecosystem e.g.wetlands and hedgerows 3)Use of genetically modified (GM) crops, to prevent food shortage and reduce cost for customers
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How do government policies affect farming today?
UK exports agriculture produce to other EU countries, however it is not a reliable market. Farmers restore wildlife by leaving a strip of land along both sides, looking after ditches and ponds, maintaining hay meadows
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How does cash crops cultivation impact on subsistence food production?
1)repay debts, where crops are exchanged for cash. 2)profits might pay for the benefits for development 3)more people to employ
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What are the four main causes of rainforest destruction?
1)Impact of cash and ranching 2)Impact of forestry 3)Impact of mining 4)Impact of growing infrastructure
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of large-scale exploitation?
A:-Timber&Minerals produce foreign exchange-new skills are learned-jobs are provided-infracture is improves. D:-LP thrown off land-businesses owned by TNC's profits go abroad-Low paid-Soil erosion form new roads
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What are causes and impacts of soil erosion?
1)heavy machinery compacts the ground2)wind blows away soil exposed areas3)mining ruins large areas4)overcropping impoverishes the soil5)Agribusiness have little regard for the soil6)Irrigation causes salinity and water logging
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What are the methods to reduce and prevent soil erosion?
1)contour ploughing on more gentle slope2)natural manure used where possible3)Afforestation on steepest slopes4)crops alternated with grass to prevent over cultivation5)reduce overgrazing by having smaller better herds
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what are the two solutions to reduce irrigation problems in Egypt's Nile valley?
1)Underground drainage systems take the saline water away, but they are expensive to build. 2)Changing land use cheaper
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Why do rural people believe there are more opportunities in the city than there?
1)What they hear from the media 2)What they learn from their friends or relatives who have already moved.
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What are the factors affecting tourism's growth?
1)social economic factors 2)Improvements in technology 3)Expansion of holiday choice
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What are the benefits of tourism in poorer countries?
1)Many people are employed 2)Tourists spend holiday money in pounds sterling 3)Governments tax visitors help pay for extra service 4)Extra jobs are created indirectly 5)Many small businesses have started up to serve the tourists themselves
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What are the six stages for Butler tourist resort life-cycle model?
1)Exploration 2)Involvement 3)Development 4)Consolidation 5)Stagnation 6)Decline or Rejuvenation
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What are the two key issues causing difficulties in the early 21st century?
1)Terrorism, destruction of the World centre in NY on 11 Sep 2001. 2)Exchange rates and the banking crises, control value for money for tourists on holidays
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of mass tourism?
A:-Tourism brings jobs-contruction jobs go to local people-new leisure facilities open to local people.D:-activity may be seasonal-industry is dominated by large companies-Lower and middle income customers are the target market
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What attracts people to extreme environments?
1)Niche market 2)involves element of risks 3)Pursuing activities 4)Thrill enjoyed by some people
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How can tourism be more sustainable?
1)Stewardship and conservation, so people feel more involved at this level and the protection of historical buildings. 2)Aims of ecotourism, experience of the natural environment directly, undertaking activities e.g. bird-watching
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Card 2

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How do people from different ethic groups try to reduce segregation?

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1)increasing children's education 2)Employment through initiatives 3)Community involvement 4)Providing facilities

Card 3

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What are the strategies to improve living in squatter settlements in poorer parts of the world?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give an example of the problems of rapid urbanisation poorer parts of the world

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do you reduce the problems of rapid urbanisation?

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