Human Biology Option B

biological catalysit that enables biochemical reactions to occur at a lower activation energy
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2-amino acids
Carboxylic acid molecule with an amino group and a function group on carbon #2
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Ion with both a positive and negative charge
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Peptide Bond
bond between two amino acids as a result of a condensation reaction
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a condensation polymer formed by the reaction of many animo acids
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primary Structure
# of amino acids, the identity of those amino acids and arrangement of amino acids in a protein chain
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Secondary Structure
Either and alpha-helix (coils of proteins) or Beta sheet (sheets that have a corrugated appearance) formed by dipole bonding between primary structures
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Tertiary Structure
When intramolecular bonding occurs between secondary structures
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Quateranary Structure
when separate polypeptide chains interact with eachother
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Destruction of a #D shape of a protein by physical and chemical agents
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Separation of amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids according to thier charge and their mass by applying a potential difference
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An organic dye that changes the color of the amino acids which makes them appear as bands along the length of a gel during electrophoresis
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Separation of components of a mixture according to their relative attraction to the stationary and mobile phases
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Retenton Factor
A measure of how far a component of a mixture has traveled in comparison to the solvent during paper or thin layer chromatography
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simplest form of a carbohydrate with the empirical forumla CH20
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A molecule made by the condensation reaction between two monosaccharides
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Ether Linkage
An ether functional group (-O-) that joins two monosaccharides in a disaccharide or polysaccharide
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A condensation polymer formed by the reaction between many monosaccharides
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Plant energy strage of polysaccharide
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main structural material of plant walls. Humans can't digest it
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Enzyme which breaks down cellulose
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Diatry Fiber
Material not hydrolysed by enzymers inside human digestive tract but may be digested microflora in the gut.
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fat soluble naturally occuring molecules such as fats, oils, waxes, cholesterol's, sterols and fat soluble vitimas.
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A very large, non-polar molecul that is insoluble in water and is formed by the condensation reaction between 3-fatty acids
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Fatty Acid
A carboxylic acid molecule with a long (grater than 8 carbons) hydrocarbon tail.
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molecules with hydrophilic heads consisting of phosphate groups and with a hydrophobic tail. A key component of all biological membranes.
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A lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton with four fused rings, generally arranged in a 6-6-6-5 fashion
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Glycerol (C3H8O3)
A triol that reacts with 3-fatty acid molecules to make triglyceride.
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Lipids bonded to saccharides
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Disolved in non-polar solvents.
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Alcohol with a fused system of rings
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A sterol, found in all body tissues, where it helps control the permeability of cell membranes
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A biological assembly that contrains lipids bound to proteins. Used to transport cholestrol
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Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL's)
cholesterol carrying lipoproteins that are larger and less dense than HDL. (Bad cholesterol)
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High Density Lipoproteins (HDL's)
Cholestrol carrying lipoproteins that are small and dense dur to large proportion of protein. (Good Cholesterol)
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Substances that make up more than 0.005% of our body weight.
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Substances that make up less than 0.005% of our body weight
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A substance that needs to be presents in addition to an enzyme for a certain reaction to take place
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Chemicals vital to the normal functioning of an animals metabolism and that the animal can't synthesise itself
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When fat soluble vitamins build up in the fatty tissue of the body.
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Vitamin A
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Vitamin D
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Vitamin C
Ascorbic Acid
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'Chemical messenger' or regulatory compound released by cells of one tissue and acts to regulare the metabolism of target cells in another tissue.
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Sex Hormones
Control sexual function such as spirm creation and ovulation. Also give secondary sex characteristics.
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primary female sex hormone.
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Primary male sex hormone. 40-60 times higher levels in males than females
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Oral Contraseptives
admiister estrogen and progestins stopping secretion of LH and FSH and hence stop ovulation. Also inhibit spirm from penetrating cervix s it changes the composition fo the cervical mucus.
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Anabolic Steriods
Relate to testosterone levels, increasing protein synthesis leading to increased build up of cellular tissue such as muscle.
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Unsaturated Fat
Contains a carbon-carbon double bond.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


2-amino acids


Carboxylic acid molecule with an amino group and a function group on carbon #2

Card 3




Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Peptide Bond


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5




Preview of the front of card 5
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