Human Nutrition - Enzymes and digestion

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  • Created by: Isobelfj
  • Created on: 05-04-18 18:21
Explain how food is moved through the gut by Peristalsis?
1) a muscular tissue all the way down the alimentary canal squeezes balls through gut 2) it squeezes to ensure it doesn't get clogged with old food 3) this squeezing action is waves of circular muscle contractions called peristalis
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What are starch , proteins and fats?
Big molecules - to big to pass through walls of digestion system, are also insoluble
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What are sugars , amino acids , glycerol and fatty acids?
Smaller molecules - are also soluble and can pass easily through the walls of the digestive system
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What do digestive enzymes do?
Break down big molecules into smaller ones
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What does Amylase Enzyme do ?
Converts starch into maltose and maltose into glucose
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What enzyme converts starch to maltose?
Amylase Enzyme
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What enzyme converts Maltose to Glucose?
Maltose Enzyme
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What does Proteases Enzyme do ?
Convert proteins into amino acids
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What does Lipases Enzyme do?
Convert Lipids into glycerol and fatty acids
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Where is bile produced?
Bile is produced in the liver
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Where is bile stored?
Bile is stored in the Gal Bladder before it is released into the small intestines
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How does bile neutralises the stomach acid?
The hydrochloric acid in the stomach is too acidic for the for enzymes in the small intestine to work properly. Bile is alkaline -neutralises the acid and makes conditions alkaline so the enzymes can work best
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How does bile Emulsifies fat ?
It breaks down the fat into tiny droplets - giving a bigger surface area of fat for the enzyme lipase to work on , this makes digestion faster
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Where is villi located?
in the small intestine
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Why is the small intestine really long?
so there is time to break down + absorb food
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What are the small intestine walls covered in and why ?
the walls of the small intestine are covered in millions and millions of villi - so there is a really big surface area for absorbtion
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What does each cell on the surface of the villi have?
Each cell has a microvilli - little projections that increase surface area
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What does a villi have?
A single permeable layer of surface layer + a very good blood supply to help quick absorbtion
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How do you test for energy in food?
Burn it
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what is the name of the muscle contractions which move food through the body ?
Peristalsis
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what enzyme does the salivary glands produce ?
Amylase
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what are proteins made up of ?
Amino acids
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what type of enzyme is made and works in the stomach ?
Protease
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are starch , proteins and fats?

Back

Big molecules - to big to pass through walls of digestion system, are also insoluble

Card 3

Front

What are sugars , amino acids , glycerol and fatty acids?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do digestive enzymes do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does Amylase Enzyme do ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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