Human Geography- Population

HideShow resource information
what is demography?
demography is the study of human populations
1 of 56
what are the 3 components that changes in population are linked to?
births, migrations and deaths
2 of 56
what is a national census?
an official count of all the population and socio-economic factors that can be easily identified
3 of 56
in MEDCs how often does a census usually occur?
usually every 10 years
4 of 56
why do governments need censuses?
to keep track of the characteristics of the nations population which can help improve education, healthcare and housing
5 of 56
what are some of the factors that affect the reliability of census date in MEDCs?
reaction to interference, fears about confidentiality and special needs
6 of 56
what are some of the reasons that affect the reliability of census date in LEDCs?
delayed payment for enumerators, the challenge of nomadic populations and ethnic tensions
7 of 56
what is an enumerator?
a person employed in taking a census of the population
8 of 56
when did Nigeria gain independence and who they gain it from?
gained independence from Britain in 1961
9 of 56
how many ethnic and linguistic groups does Nigeria have?
over 250- simply split between a Muslim north and Christian south
10 of 56
what does MINT stand for?
Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey
11 of 56
what is a MINT
a newly emerging and industrialising country
12 of 56
what is the main reason for failed censuses in Nigeria?
distrust between the 2 main regions
13 of 56
what are some ways to make a future census more reliable?
greater access to media, improve literacy levels and use biometric data to reduce fraudulent counting
14 of 56
what is the average crude birth rate (CBR) in MEDCs?
generally low- on average 11 births per 1,000 population per year
15 of 56
what is the average crude birth rate in LEDCs?
generally high- on average 22 births per 1,000 per year
16 of 56
why is CBR a good indicator of development?
low birth rates suggest access to contraception, independent females and financial security for the elderly
17 of 56
what is the average crude death rate (CDR) in MEDCs?
generally low- 10 deaths per 1,000 population per year
18 of 56
what is the average crude death rate (CDR) in LEDCs?
less than MEDCs- on average 8 deaths per 1,000 population per year
19 of 56
why is CDR a good indicator of development?
low DR suggest good levels of sanitation, basic medical care and sound diet
20 of 56
why is CBR not a good indicator of development?
birth rate can be affected by gov population policies and doesn't take into account population structure
21 of 56
why is CDR not a good indicator of development?
death rates falling in most countries due to basic sanitation and MEDCs have a surprisingly high DR due to an ageing population
22 of 56
what are the strengths of the DTM model?
can be a predictor for future pop change, countries can be put into the model to reflect different stages and it has worked very accurately for many MEDCs (eg UK)
23 of 56
what are the weaknesses of the DTM model?
some demographers think that the DTM doesn't apply well to some LEDCS, migration is left out of the model and can the model go backwards? (eg if DR goes up due to pandemics
24 of 56
(in 1798) what was the basis of Thomas Malthus' theory on population growth?
he believed that the rate of population growth increased at a much faster genetic rate (1,2,4,8) then food production (1,2,3) and unless reduced the population would reduce due to a number of environmental checks
25 of 56
what are some of these environmental checks that would reduce the population?
disease, famine and war which increase the DR
26 of 56
what are the 2 concepts that are fundamental to Malthus' views?
carrying capacity (the max capability of a region to support people with food) and population ceiling (the numerical limit of people who can be supported in any given region)
27 of 56
what are the 3 predicted outcomes of exponential population growth that Malthus proposed?
sudden adjustment, progressive adjustment and progressive approximation
28 of 56
what are some examples of support for Malthus?
the potato famine in Ireland during the mid 1800s and the Ethiopian famine in 1980s largely due to desertification
29 of 56
(in 1965) what was the basis of Ester Boserup's theory on population growth
she believed that populations would continue to grow until they came close to the carrying capacity and at that point human inventiveness would find a way to avert the crisis and produce more food
30 of 56
what are some examples of human invention that has increased food output
hydroponics and GM crops
31 of 56
what is an example of a country that supports Boserup's theory?
Britain's increasing population during the 18th century. At this time agricultural reform resulted in an increase in food production
32 of 56
what evidence is there in support for Boserup?
irrigation has made semi-arid lands more productive, more Asian countries are able to grow 2 crops per year and increases in the distance fishing boats can travel can now capture more fish
33 of 56
what is the Epidemiological transition model?
similar to the DTM and focuses on the cause of death
34 of 56
what are the 3 stages of the Epidemiological transition model?
the pre-transition stage, the receding pandemic and the age of degenerative and man made diseases
35 of 56
in LEDCs what type of diseases cause the most deaths?
communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria and measles
36 of 56
in MEDCs what type of diseases cause the most deaths?
life style chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease
37 of 56
what are some of the limitations of the ETM?
pandemics, poverty and rapid medical tech change can all cause the DR to change very quickly which isn't illustrated in the ETM
38 of 56
what are the 5 stages of the DTM?
high fluctuating, early expanding, late expanding, low fluctuating and declining
39 of 56
what does 'optimum population' mean?
this describes a situation where an area is deemed to have the max number of people to utilise the resources in that area to their full potential and achieves the highest standard of living
40 of 56
what is overpopulation?
there are too many people for the existing resources to be used in a sustainable way which leads to resources being overused or depleted
41 of 56
what is underpopulation?
there are insufficient numbers to utilise the resources effectively and the area isn't reaching its economic potential fully
42 of 56
what are the 4 categories for population policies?
anti-natalist, pro-natalist, migration- based and indirect
43 of 56
what are some examples of countries/places that have introduced anti-birth policies?
Mauritius (increased family planning facilities and an education programme), Singapore (benefits for smaller families and provided contraception), and China's 'one child' policy
44 of 56
what are some examples of countries/places that have introduced pro-birth policies?
Singapore (BR decreased too much so the gov runs a match-making agency), Russia (has a national holiday on 12th September, any woman that has a child 9 months later gets a prize) and Sweden (financial benefits for those with big families)
45 of 56
when did China experience a decline in its population?
in the 1950s and early 1960s
46 of 56
why did China experience a decline in its population in the 1950s and early 1960s?
mainly due to a number of natural disasters such as earthquakes hurricanes and floods which subsequently led to a number of famines as well
47 of 56
who was the President of China during this period?
President Mao Zedong
48 of 56
what was the policy that boosted China's fertility rate called?
'The Great Leap Forward'
49 of 56
how did it affect the fertility rate?
it caused the population to rise from 540 million in 1949 to 940 million in 1976
50 of 56
what is an example of an anti-fertility policy that was introduced before the one child policy?
'Wan-xi-shao'- encouraged later marriages and longer gaps between children
51 of 56
when was China's one child policy introduced?
1979
52 of 56
when was it changed to a two child policy?
2016
53 of 56
what are some of the negative effects of the one child policy?
increase in female infanticide, this caused a skewed male-female ratio (in 2005 there were 100 boys for 118 girls), ageing population (will reduce ratio of workers form 4:1 to 10:1), 'little emperor' syndrome and human rights violations
54 of 56
what was the GDP per capita in China before the one child policy?
$310
55 of 56
what was the GDP per capita in China after the one child policy?
almost $8,000
56 of 56

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what are the 3 components that changes in population are linked to?

Back

births, migrations and deaths

Card 3

Front

what is a national census?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

in MEDCs how often does a census usually occur?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

why do governments need censuses?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Population change and migration resources »