Human Geography (Paper 2)

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What year was easyJet founded?
1995
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What are the 6 stages on the Butler Model?
Exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation and decline
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What can be done to avoid decline?
Rejuvenation
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What are the 2 axis on the Butler Model?
X = Time Y = Number of tourists
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What is stewardship?
Actively playing a role in the responsibility of caring for the environment
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Give 4 reasons why tourism has increased over the last century
Package holidays, more disposable income, holiday entitlement from work, the media, advances in travel technology
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Why would advances in travel technology be advantageous?
It allows people to travel more comfortably and can be advertised in a more attractive way. For example, long haul flights have been made more comfortable with the introduction of the 787
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Give three factors that reduce tourist number
Safety/terrorist threat, bad media, exchange rates poor and poor economy
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What is a weak exchange rate?
When the value of other currencies is low, meaning you get more of another currency to the GBP
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What is a strong exchange rate?
When the value of other currencies is high, meaning you get less of another currency for your GBP
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What is death rate?
How many people per 1000 die each year
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What is birth rate?
How many people per 1000, are born each year
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What is the fertility rate?
The average number of children that each woman will give birth to
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What is the replacement rate?
The number of children that need to be born to replace those dying
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What is dense population?
When lots of people in a small space
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What is the opposite to a dense population?
Sparse
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Give 3 reasons why some areas are more populated than others
Temperate climate with seasons (e.g. UK). Flat fertile land. Access to raw materials
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In which stage of the DTM does the total population begin to increase?
2
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In which stage of the DTM does the death and birth fluctuate highly?
1
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In which stage of the DTM does the total population decline
5
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In which stages of the DTM is the birth rate significantly higher than the death rate?
2 and 3 (so therefore total population increases due to natural increase)
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In which stage of the DTM does the birth rate begin to decline?
3
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In which stage of the DTM does the birth and death rate fluctuate at a low level?
4
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Which stage does death rate fall at a slower rate than the previous stage?
3. Creating a curve
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Which stage of the DTM are MEDCs most likely to be in?
4
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What kind of settlement is likely to be in stage 1 of the DTM?
Rainforest tribes (not happening that we know of)
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What are the 2 axis on the the DTM?
Y= Death/birthrate X=Time
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Why is the birth rate high fluctuating in stage 1 of the DTM?
Lack of contraception
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Why is the death rate high in stage one of DTM?
No medical facilities
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Why does the death rate start to decline in stage 2 of the DTM?
Better healthcare AND more people working in farming = more food
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Why does the birth rate begin to decline in stage 3 of the DTM?
Infant mortality reduces because of better healthcare so people feel they have more chance of their child surviving so don't have loads
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Why does birthrate stay low in stage 4?
Free contraception/wide availability
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Give 3 reasons why birthrates in LEDCs are higher than that of MEDCs
Infant mortality so women have more. Limited access to contraception. Need children to work on farms in rural areas. Want children to look after them in their old age
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What does the population pyramid of an ageing population look like?
Wider top than bottom
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What does the population pyramid of a country in stage 2 of the DTM look like?
Thin top (high death rate) and fat bottom (high birthrate). More people are born than die
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What does the population pyramid of a country in stage 4 look like?
Slight bulge with a fat top and fat bottom which is slightly thinner than the top
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Give 3 things that would decrease population
Disease outbreak, availability of contraception, natural disaster, civil unrest, lack of education, famine
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Give 2 issues of an ageing population
Taxes have to be raised (and maybe retirement age). Money spent on old people stuff rather than stuff for young people = no one will live there after a while. Must provide more healthcare = expensive
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What case study would you use for birth control?
China
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What case study would you use for non-birth control (alternative)?
Kerala, India
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What case study would you use for internal EU immigration?
Poland
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What case study would you use for refugees (crisis)?
Afghanistan to UK via The Jungle
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What case study would you use for an ageing population?
East Devon, UK
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Give 3 push factors from a foreign country to the UK (also works for rural-urban migration)
Famine, crop failure, lack of healthcare, lack of services, war, flooding (and other natural disasters)
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What are the pull factors to the UK? (also works for rural-urban migration)
Employment, good climate, less crime, political stability, fertile land, better healthcare
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Give some pull factors to the countryside
Better schools, peace and quiet, low crime rates, low cost of housing
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Give some push factors of the city
High crime rates, affordable housing, overcrowding
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What are greenfield sites?
Cheaper to build on land that has not been previously built on - this includes greenbelt land
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What are brownfield sites?
Disused, derelict land that has already been built on but is expensive as it is usually inner city and contaminated.
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Give 2 advantages of brownfield sites
Reduces urban sprawl, reduces unsightly areas, meets the demand for housing
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Give 2 advantages of greenfield sites
Cheaper, cities can expand
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Give 2 disadvantages of greenfield sites
Increases urban sprawl, countryside is ruined = unhappy environmentalists, encourages commuting further = pollution
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Give 2 disadvantages of brownfield sites
Expensive due to decontamination costs, more available up north and the housing crisis is down south
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Give the Burgess model from inside to out
CBD, inner city, suburbs, rural-urban fringe
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Give 2 characteristics of the CBD
Business, town halls
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Give 2 characteristics of the inner city
Terraced housing, high crime rates, "studenty"
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Give 2 characteristics of the suburbs
Large semis and detached houses with gardens, cul-de-sacs, recreational facilities
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Give 2 characteristics of the rural-urban fringe
Out of town shopping centers, golf courses, riding stables, HUGE houses in sparse locations
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Give a social problem with traffic congestion
Air pollution = asthma attacks and breathing difficulties, more accidents
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Give an environmental issue surrounding traffic
Greenhouse gas pollutants. More roads = greenfield destruction. Acid rain = change pH of lakes = dead animals
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Give an economic issue of traffic
Building new roads is expensive. Workers arrive late. Creates a reliance on oil = source of wars and political unrest
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Give 2 issues of multicultural cities
Racism, segregation, language barriers, ghetto formation
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Give 3 reasons why the issues with multicultural cities came about
No English language education. People don't like immigrants. Poor ethniticies can only afford poor housing.
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Give 3 solutions to the issues in a multicultural city
Public info in many language/international language/educate racists/increase community involvement/translators. Leeds has done all this
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What are 3 kinds of pollution?
Land, air, water
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What is a major effect of urbanisation in LEDCs?
Air pollution (Bophal). Land pollution (Dharavi Slum). Water pollution (Ganges River)
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Give 3 issues of a shanty slum
Open sewers = disease. Little healthcare = die from disease. High population density (2m each). Very high AIDS/HIV rates
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Give 3 good things about a slum
Better than the countryside. Better access to healthcare. Better community sense. Better paid jobs with more availability
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What case study would you use for a shanty town?
Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya
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What case study would you use for traffic congestion?
London
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What case study would you use for a CBD?
Newcastle
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What case study would you use for CBD revitalisation?
Newcastle
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What case study would you use for inner city regeneration?
Newcastle TWDC
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What case study would you use for a sustainable city?
Curitiba, Brazil
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What case study would you use for a sustainable town?
BedZED, Beddington, London, UK
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Give 3 things the UK has done to combat traffic congestion
£10 congestion charge in London. Park and Ride buses. Encourage car sharing. Extended underground services. Barclays (Borris) Bikes). Reintroduction of trams.
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Card 2

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What are the 6 stages on the Butler Model?

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Exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation and decline

Card 3

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What can be done to avoid decline?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the 2 axis on the Butler Model?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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What is stewardship?

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