Superpowers Key Words (from Hodder Education revision guide)

EMERGING POWERS
Countries whose power is increasing; they usually have some strengths but also weaknesses compared to existing superpowers
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GEOPOLITICAL
The influence of geographical factors (e.g. economy, population size, military strength) on the actions of countries towards others (e.g. foreign policy, agreements, alliance and conflicts)
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SUPERPOWER
A country that can project its power and ideas globally, influence other countries using its economic, political, military and cultural strengths
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SANCTIONS
Penalties applied by a country (or international organisations e.g. UN) to another e.g. refusal to trade with them, refusing foreign travel or banning them from taking part in an international sporting event
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SMART POWER
A combination of threat and persuasion, leading other countries towards getting your way
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GEO-STRATEGIC
The policies of a country in terms of securing the resources it needs, both within its territory, nearby and globally
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EMPIRE
A group of territories and their peoples ruled over by one country, usually taken by conquest. Conquered territories are usually called colonies (e.g. British Empire)
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IDEOLOGY
A set of beliefs, ideas and values held by most people in a society. In Western countries the dominant ideology is one of democracy, capitalism and freedom
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THE COLD WAR
1945 - 1990, a tense period dominate by the USA and USSR (Russia) superpowers which were broadly equal in terms of power and influence, but ideologically opposed to each other
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HEGEMON
(or hegemonic power)A superpower that has mastery over all others in cultural, economic and military terms
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BLUE WATER NAVY
Operates in the open ocean, green water navy has ships that can only operate near the coast
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G20
An international forum of 20 of the worlds largest economies
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GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE
International treaties and agreements that aim to reduce pollution, destruction of ecosystems and climate change
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DEMOGRAPHIC DIVIDEND
A youthful population today (under 15) will become a large working-age population in the future, boosting economic growth (e.g. India)
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FREE TRADE
International trade free from restrictions such as import/export taxes or quotas
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INTER-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS (IGOS)
Countries that work internationally on shared goals
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TRANS-NATIONAL CORPORATION (TNC)
A company that operates in more than one country
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FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI)
When TNCs invest money abroad e.g. through building factories or opening offices
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(SUPERPOWERS) PATENT
Legal protection given to a new invention, other companies can use it but payment of a royalty fee must be given to the inventor
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CULTURE
A system of shared beliefs, values and traditions including behaviour, dress, art, language, food, religion and often political views
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GLOBAL POLICEMEN
Countries that sort out problems e.g. USA, UK, Russia and China
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MILITARY ALLIANCE
A treaty between countries that usually involves mutual defence i.e. if attacked, all alliance members will come to the aid of the attacked country
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INTER-GOVERNMENTAL PANEL OF CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)
A group of scientists that report on global warming roughly once every five years, important in informing the debate on global warming (help global agreements)
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ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION
Reductions in water quality, air quality, soil health and biodiversity caused by pollution, deforestation and urbanisation
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ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE
Decisions taken ti protect and conserve the environment, by placing laws, policing and monitoring pollution and protected areas
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RARE EARTHS
A group of elements widely used in electronic, medial and laser devices. 80-90% are in China
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RESOURCE NATIONALISM
When a country keeps domestically produced resources to itself, rather than trading them internationally e.g. rare earths
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EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE (EEZ)
200 nautical miles offshore from a country's coast, all resources in and under the sea
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INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY (IP)
Includes trademark, patent protection and copyright - protection of ideas
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COUNTERFEITING
Copying someone else trademarked, branded designs e.g. handbags or phones
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SPHERE OF INFLUENCE
Area beyond a country's borders, over which it feels it should have some power but without having any formal authority there
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INTERDEPENDENCE
When one country or region relies on another to ensure its economic prosperity
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TRADE DEFICIT
When a country imports from a country more than they export to them e.g. India, large trade deficit with China
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GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS
2007 - stock-market crash and a series of bank failures, led to a global recession, business closures and rising unemployment
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ECONOMIC RESTRUCTURING
Shift from manufacturing (secondary( industry to services (tertiary)
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INTELLIGENCE SERVICES
e.g. MI5 or CIA, gather information on a country's enemies, includes spying on them
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The influence of geographical factors (e.g. economy, population size, military strength) on the actions of countries towards others (e.g. foreign policy, agreements, alliance and conflicts)

Back

GEOPOLITICAL

Card 3

Front

A country that can project its power and ideas globally, influence other countries using its economic, political, military and cultural strengths

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Penalties applied by a country (or international organisations e.g. UN) to another e.g. refusal to trade with them, refusing foreign travel or banning them from taking part in an international sporting event

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A combination of threat and persuasion, leading other countries towards getting your way

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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