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how are earthquakes measured?
RICHTER; measures energy released (magnitude), seisometer measures the vibration. MERCALLI; measures effects of an earthquake, eye witness, photographs
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how are earthquakes formed?
friction builds up, tension releases at focus. shock waves (vibrations) releases touching epicenter (DEEPER THE FOCUS THE WEAKER THE EARTHQUAKE- ABSORBED AWAY )
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how do you predict an earthquake?
small earthquakes, gases are realeased, changes in shape , changes in animal behavior
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types of plate margins
DESTRUCTIVE; moving towards each other, oceanic subducts and creates ocean trenches. CONSTRUCTIVE; moves apart, new land forms. CONSERVATIVE; slides past eachother and earthquakes form
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what is the earths crust divided up into?
continental; thick and less dense. oceanic; thinner and more dense.
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where are volcanoes formed?
destructive, constructiveplate margins and at hotspots
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types of volcanoes and their characteristics
COMPOSITE; layers of ash and lava, steep sides, narrow base, thick lava. SHIELD; lava layers, gentle slopes wide base, runny lava. DOME; lava layers, steep slopes, thick lava
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what are consequences of a supervolacno eruption?
release; rock, ash, lava, clouds of hot gas burns everything within 10 miles, ash blocks out sunlight and covers buildings, crops die
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how are fold mountains formed
when two continental plates collide sediment is pushed together EG. Alps
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how are fold mountains used?
farming, mining,hydro electric power. forestry, tourism
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what problems do the residents of fold mountains face and how do they adapt
STEEP RELIEF; goats well adapted,trees protect them from avalanches. POOR SOIL; animals grazed instead LIMITED COMMUNICATION; roads, tunnels link different mountains
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processes of erosion
HYDRAULIC ACTION: force of water. ABRASION: bed load hit the river beds and banks. ATTRITION: bed loads hit eachother. SOLUTION river dissolves rock
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what is the term for the brake down of rocks where they are ?
WEATHERING; water falls in the cracks, freezes and expands making the crack gets deeper, this repeats until the rock eventually falls off. CHEMICAL; carbonic acid reacts with the rocks or rocks dissolve in water
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describe a meander
OUTSIDE BENDS; faster flowing, erosion and river cliff formed. INSIDE BEND: slower, shallower, deposition and a slip off slope is formed
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processes of transportation
TRACTION: large boulders rolling on the bed of the rive. SALTATION: pebbles bouncing along the riverbed. SUSPENSION: light materials carried by water. SOLUTION: soluble material carried away
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how are materials transported along coasts?
LONGSHORE DRIFT: swash pushing sediment in the direction of the prevailing winds, back wash transports it down under the influence of gravity, it repeats in a zig zag motion
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why does deposition occur?
it is shallower, decrease in speed, more deposition being carried, sheltered area
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what landform does deposition create?
BEACHES(area of deposited sand and shingle) SPITS(longshore drift deposits sand into the sea) BAR( when a spit rejoins the coast)
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what are wave cut platforms?
waves erode cliff until a notch is formed, erosion continues, unstable rock collapses , material washed away , new notch forms, a platform is created as a cliff continues to retreat
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how are headlands and bays formed?
alternating bands of hard and soft rock, soft rock is eroded more by hydraulic action to form a bay. hard rock takes longer so it sticks out more
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how are stacks formed?
cracks grow on a headland, erosion enlargns crack to caves after years of hydraulic action and abrasion, the cave deepens and breaks through into an arch, rocks above arch collapses into a stack, stack erodes into a stump eventually submerging
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how are ox-bow lakes formed?
erosion makes the outsid bends grow closer together, the river neck breaks during a flood, river flows the fastest and shortest route, deposition on the inside bends cut off the ox-bow lake
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how are waterfalls formed?
1. waterfalls form over areas of hard and soft rock 2. softer rock erodes more 3. steep drop created called a waterfall 4. hard rock is undercut by erosion and collapses 5. collapsed rock creates abrasion plunge pool 6. waterfall retreats into a gorg
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what is a river split into?
UPPER COURSE; steep sides, narrow and shallow. MIDDLE COURSE; gentle sloping sides, wider and deeper. LOWER COURSE; very wide, flat sides, very deep channel
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what are the two types of waves
DESTRUCTIVE; weak swash but powerful backwash, large waves, erodes beach CONSTRUCTIVE; powerful swash, weak back wash, low waves, builds up the beach
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why are sea levels increasing?
global warming is melting ice caps and global temperatures result in thermal expansion of water
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what happens when rivers flood?
rivers flood on the flood plains. it creates levees when heavier material is dropped first as the water loses energy
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what affects the river discharge?
heavy, prolonged rainfall ( saturation) steep relief, urbanization (drains), deforestation (no interception), temperature (evaporation, hard surfaces), snow melting, impermeable surfaces
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what is lag time?
the delay in time between peak rainfall and peak discharge. the longer the lag time the less risk of flooding
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what does the hydro-graph show?
it shows rainfall and river discharge (raising limb and falling limb)
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give two soft coastal managements
BEACH NOURISHMENT; sand added to beaches to make them wider it slows down waves but it is expensive to replace. DUNE REGENERATION; this is sand dune plants which absorb the wave energy however they are easily destroyed by humans stepping on them
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give two soft coastal managements
MARSH CREATION; plants stabilize the mudflats but can be easily eroded away. MANAGED RETREAT; allowing an area to flood, marshland makes new habitat
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give two examples of hard flood management
channnel straightening (it moves water away quickly but can flood downstream and more erosion occur) Dams and resevoirs ( stores water for drinking and HEP)
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give two examples of soft flood managment
flood warnings (impact is reduced , more time for evacuation but it doesnt stop the flood) flood plain zoning (no impermeable surfaces, but limits area to build on )
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give three hard coastal managements
SEA WALL; reflects wave back but backwash is strong. ROCK ARMOUR; piles of boulders which absorb the wave energy however the strong waves can move the boulder which are expensive to replace. GROYNES; stops long shore drift but starves the beach
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what is water diflit and how can it be resolved
when there is a greater supply than demand. it can be resolved by reducing the amount of water used, fixing leaky pipes and building dams and reservoirs
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Card 2


how are earthquakes formed?


friction builds up, tension releases at focus. shock waves (vibrations) releases touching epicenter (DEEPER THE FOCUS THE WEAKER THE EARTHQUAKE- ABSORBED AWAY )

Card 3


how do you predict an earthquake?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


types of plate margins


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what is the earths crust divided up into?


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