human geography

HideShow resource information
how are earthquakes measured?
RICHTER; measures energy released (magnitude), seisometer measures the vibration. MERCALLI; measures effects of an earthquake, eye witness, photographs
1 of 36
how are earthquakes formed?
friction builds up, tension releases at focus. shock waves (vibrations) releases touching epicenter (DEEPER THE FOCUS THE WEAKER THE EARTHQUAKE- ABSORBED AWAY )
2 of 36
how do you predict an earthquake?
small earthquakes, gases are realeased, changes in shape , changes in animal behavior
3 of 36
types of plate margins
DESTRUCTIVE; moving towards each other, oceanic subducts and creates ocean trenches. CONSTRUCTIVE; moves apart, new land forms. CONSERVATIVE; slides past eachother and earthquakes form
4 of 36
what is the earths crust divided up into?
continental; thick and less dense. oceanic; thinner and more dense.
5 of 36
where are volcanoes formed?
destructive, constructiveplate margins and at hotspots
6 of 36
types of volcanoes and their characteristics
COMPOSITE; layers of ash and lava, steep sides, narrow base, thick lava. SHIELD; lava layers, gentle slopes wide base, runny lava. DOME; lava layers, steep slopes, thick lava
7 of 36
what are consequences of a supervolacno eruption?
release; rock, ash, lava, clouds of hot gas burns everything within 10 miles, ash blocks out sunlight and covers buildings, crops die
8 of 36
how are fold mountains formed
when two continental plates collide sediment is pushed together EG. Alps
9 of 36
how are fold mountains used?
farming, mining,hydro electric power. forestry, tourism
10 of 36
what problems do the residents of fold mountains face and how do they adapt
STEEP RELIEF; goats well adapted,trees protect them from avalanches. POOR SOIL; animals grazed instead LIMITED COMMUNICATION; roads, tunnels link different mountains
11 of 36
processes of erosion
HYDRAULIC ACTION: force of water. ABRASION: bed load hit the river beds and banks. ATTRITION: bed loads hit eachother. SOLUTION river dissolves rock
12 of 36
what is the term for the brake down of rocks where they are ?
WEATHERING; water falls in the cracks, freezes and expands making the crack gets deeper, this repeats until the rock eventually falls off. CHEMICAL; carbonic acid reacts with the rocks or rocks dissolve in water
13 of 36
describe a meander
OUTSIDE BENDS; faster flowing, erosion and river cliff formed. INSIDE BEND: slower, shallower, deposition and a slip off slope is formed
14 of 36
processes of transportation
TRACTION: large boulders rolling on the bed of the rive. SALTATION: pebbles bouncing along the riverbed. SUSPENSION: light materials carried by water. SOLUTION: soluble material carried away
15 of 36
how are materials transported along coasts?
LONGSHORE DRIFT: swash pushing sediment in the direction of the prevailing winds, back wash transports it down under the influence of gravity, it repeats in a zig zag motion
16 of 36
why does deposition occur?
it is shallower, decrease in speed, more deposition being carried, sheltered area
17 of 36
what landform does deposition create?
BEACHES(area of deposited sand and shingle) SPITS(longshore drift deposits sand into the sea) BAR( when a spit rejoins the coast)
18 of 36
what are wave cut platforms?
waves erode cliff until a notch is formed, erosion continues, unstable rock collapses , material washed away , new notch forms, a platform is created as a cliff continues to retreat
19 of 36
how are headlands and bays formed?
alternating bands of hard and soft rock, soft rock is eroded more by hydraulic action to form a bay. hard rock takes longer so it sticks out more
20 of 36
how are stacks formed?
cracks grow on a headland, erosion enlargns crack to caves after years of hydraulic action and abrasion, the cave deepens and breaks through into an arch, rocks above arch collapses into a stack, stack erodes into a stump eventually submerging
21 of 36
how are ox-bow lakes formed?
erosion makes the outsid bends grow closer together, the river neck breaks during a flood, river flows the fastest and shortest route, deposition on the inside bends cut off the ox-bow lake
22 of 36
how are waterfalls formed?
1. waterfalls form over areas of hard and soft rock 2. softer rock erodes more 3. steep drop created called a waterfall 4. hard rock is undercut by erosion and collapses 5. collapsed rock creates abrasion plunge pool 6. waterfall retreats into a gorg
23 of 36
what is a river split into?
UPPER COURSE; steep sides, narrow and shallow. MIDDLE COURSE; gentle sloping sides, wider and deeper. LOWER COURSE; very wide, flat sides, very deep channel
24 of 36
what are the two types of waves
DESTRUCTIVE; weak swash but powerful backwash, large waves, erodes beach CONSTRUCTIVE; powerful swash, weak back wash, low waves, builds up the beach
25 of 36
why are sea levels increasing?
global warming is melting ice caps and global temperatures result in thermal expansion of water
26 of 36
what happens when rivers flood?
rivers flood on the flood plains. it creates levees when heavier material is dropped first as the water loses energy
27 of 36
what affects the river discharge?
heavy, prolonged rainfall ( saturation) steep relief, urbanization (drains), deforestation (no interception), temperature (evaporation, hard surfaces), snow melting, impermeable surfaces
28 of 36
what is lag time?
the delay in time between peak rainfall and peak discharge. the longer the lag time the less risk of flooding
29 of 36
what does the hydro-graph show?
it shows rainfall and river discharge (raising limb and falling limb)
30 of 36
give two soft coastal managements
BEACH NOURISHMENT; sand added to beaches to make them wider it slows down waves but it is expensive to replace. DUNE REGENERATION; this is sand dune plants which absorb the wave energy however they are easily destroyed by humans stepping on them
31 of 36
give two soft coastal managements
MARSH CREATION; plants stabilize the mudflats but can be easily eroded away. MANAGED RETREAT; allowing an area to flood, marshland makes new habitat
32 of 36
give two examples of hard flood management
channnel straightening (it moves water away quickly but can flood downstream and more erosion occur) Dams and resevoirs ( stores water for drinking and HEP)
33 of 36
give two examples of soft flood managment
flood warnings (impact is reduced , more time for evacuation but it doesnt stop the flood) flood plain zoning (no impermeable surfaces, but limits area to build on )
34 of 36
give three hard coastal managements
SEA WALL; reflects wave back but backwash is strong. ROCK ARMOUR; piles of boulders which absorb the wave energy however the strong waves can move the boulder which are expensive to replace. GROYNES; stops long shore drift but starves the beach
35 of 36
what is water diflit and how can it be resolved
when there is a greater supply than demand. it can be resolved by reducing the amount of water used, fixing leaky pipes and building dams and reservoirs
36 of 36

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

how are earthquakes formed?

Back

friction builds up, tension releases at focus. shock waves (vibrations) releases touching epicenter (DEEPER THE FOCUS THE WEAKER THE EARTHQUAKE- ABSORBED AWAY )

Card 3

Front

how do you predict an earthquake?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

types of plate margins

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is the earths crust divided up into?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Coastal zones resources »