Human Lifespan Development

What are the six stages of human development?
Infancy, early childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood and late adulthood
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What is meant by growth?
An increase in a measurable quantity,e.g- height
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What is meant by development?
Refers to the complex changes in skills and capabilities that an individual experiences as they grow.
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What are gross motor skills? Give an example.
The use of larger muscles in your body ( running)
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What are fine motor skills? Give an example.
The use of the smaller muscles in your body (writing)
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In infancy how can an infant use both gross and fine motor skills?
When shape sorting- The need their gross motor skills to be able to hold their body upright so that they can then reach for shape and use their fine motor skills to place it into the correct slot.
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In early childhood, what developmental milestones are they expected to achieve?
To be able to tie their laces and ride a bike.
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What is meant by primary sexual characteristics?
Relate to changes in reproductive organs
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What is meant by secondary sexual characteristics?
What develops through puberty ( outward signs of development)
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Give some primary sexual characteristsics for females
Uterus enlarges and the menstrual cycle begins
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Give some primary sexual characteristics for males?
Enlargement &, sperm production
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Give some secondary characteristics for females?
Breast develop, redistribution of body fat = hips widen, hair growth
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Give some secondary characterises for males?
Hair growth,redistribution of muscle tissue and body fat, change in larynx= deeper voice.
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What hormones are present in females?
Oestrogen and progesterone
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What hormones are present in males?
Testosterone
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Explain the main factors in early adulthood
They have reached their full height and weight and are at their peak of their physical performance.
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Explain how progesterone and oestrogen effect a woman in pregnancy
progesterone=maintains the pregnancy while oestrogen =cause sickness in early pregnancy
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List symptons of perimenopause
Loss of libido, hot flushes, irregular/heavy periods, fatigue.
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What does menopause involves?
Reduction in sex hormones, increase in others =hot flushes and ending of menstruation,
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How can menopuase effect a womans emotions?
They can become depressed and no longer feel desirable due to not being fertile
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What is meant by cognitive impairement?
When someone has difficulty remembering and learning new skills. Also, have difficulties with concentration.
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In infancy how does a child's intellectual skills develop?
Rapid growth in language skills
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How can you encourage language development in infancy?
Picture books, playing with puppets
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How can you encourage language development in early childhood?
Imaginary play and taking part in group activities.
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How can you encourage language development in adolescence?
Planning and delivering presentations, taking part in group projects and reading journals.
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What is meant by egocentric thinking?
Only seeing the world from your own perspective
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What is the nature/nurture debate?
Debate regarding influences on human behvaiour
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What does the nature part refer to?
Genetic inheritance, e.g- eye colour,height etc)
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What does the nurture part refer to?
Refers to external influences, e.g- your environment.
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What are centile charts used to measure?
Growth in newborns
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What activities can help promote gross motor skills in infancy?
1) Bouncers 2) Holding objects in front of them.
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What activities can promote fine motor skills in infancy?
Shape sorting, encouraging them to eat by themslevss
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What is meant by abstract thinking?
To be able to solve problems logically
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Who was Burrhus Frederic Skinner?
American psychologist who worked woth rats and pigeons to discover some key principles of learning new behaviours.
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Explain John Bowlby's attachment theory?
Theory on attachment in the early stages of a childs life. If there was a secure bond between baby an dmain care fiver they would benefit fro tid and deveolop rel
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What would be the effect if a child and their main caregiver didn't have a secure attachment?
They wouldn't form relationships as well with others in the future.
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List some factprs that could be the reason why the attachment wasn't as planned?
Parents separating, disability, premature baby
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What are the four stages in Piaget's theory?
Sensorimotor, preoperational,concrete operational and formal operational stage
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What is the sensorimotor stage?
Object permanence= knowing an object is still there even though it may be hiddden
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What is the preoperational stage?
Children begin to think about things symbolically
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What is the concrete operational stage?
They can conserve a number (something stays the same even though its appearance may change)
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What is the formal operational stage?
They think about abstract concepts
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What is meant by assimilation?
Using an existing schema
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What is meant by accomodation?
When the exiting schema doesn't work and needs to be changed in order to deal with a new situation/object.
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What are schema's?
The basic building blocks of knowledge
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How can poor housing conditions affect our health?
1) Overcrowding-easier spread of disease 2) Dampness- asthma 3) No central heating=hypothermia
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What are the five factors that impact PIES development?
Genetics,environment,social,economics and life events
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What is foetal alcohol syndrome?
Drinking alcohol while being pregnant
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How does alcohol reach the unborn baby?
Travels in mothers bloodstream-placenta. The baby cannot process the alcohol as well as the mother because the liver doesn't develop until later on in the pregnancy.
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How can foetal alcohol syndrome affect a baby's physical development?
Damages cells in baby's body= poor growth. Effects such as small head and jaw.
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How can the syndrome affect a baby's intellectual development?
1) Problems with thinking and speech. 2) dyslexia
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How can it affect a baby's emotional and social development?
They can be 'over friendly'= can cause safeguarding issues when older.
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What was Piaget's theory?
Focused on how children acquire the ability to think
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What are the criticisms of Piaget's theory?
Underestimates social components.
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What was Chomsky's theory?
Believed all children were born with a LAD (they're pre-programmed)
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Strengths regarding Chomsky's theory
Children all go through the same stages of language at the same time ( no matter what language). Would also correct adults for saying something grammatically incorrect. Would not speak grammatical errors,may get verbs etc in the wrong order.
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What are the criticisms of Chomsky's theory?
1) no evidence 2) Language can be learnt through interaction with others too. 3) Phonetics may play an important role
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Explain some physical features of perimenopause
1) Loss of libido, due to dryness, 2) Difficulties getting pregnant, irregular ovulation, 3)Night sweats, can cause insomnia
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When do gross motor skills occur?
Between 6&9 months
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When do fine motor skills occur?
Between 9&12 months
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is meant by growth?

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An increase in a measurable quantity,e.g- height

Card 3

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What is meant by development?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are gross motor skills? Give an example.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are fine motor skills? Give an example.

Back

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