HUMAN CELLS (BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES)

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How can we look at human cells?
light microscope, electron microscope and animation of own knowledge.
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what do cell membranes include?
intrinsic and extrinsic proteins; glycoproteins; phospholipids and cholesterol.
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what are glycoproteins?
Proteins are found floating in or around the membrane of cells. They move and can interact with the cell's environment
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what are intrinsic proteins?
These span the entire membrane. This class includes the transport proteins: channel and carrier proteins. These proteins may cross the membrane many times.
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what are carrier proteins?
Carrier proteins bind specific solute molecules and undergo a conformational change to transfer the bound molecule from one side of the membrane to the other.
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what are channel proteins?
Channel proteins form pores that, when open, allow specific solutes (e.g. ions such as Na+ or Cl-) to pass through the membrane.
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what is osmosis?
Movement of water molecules from high to low concentration across a semi-permeable membrane
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what is hypotonic solution?
- low solute concentration, high water concentration, water moves into cell.
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what is isotonic solution?
concentration of water equal on both side of the membrane.
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what is hypertonic solution?
high solute concentration, low water concentration, water leaves the cell.
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what is facilitated transport?
Like diffusion but requires a membrane protein to help (facilitate) the movement Does not require energy Moves with concentration gradient.
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what is active transport?
Moves molecules across a membrane, Requires energy (ATP)
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what is a sodium potassium pump?
Exchanges sodium for potassium across the membrane. Keeps sodium higher outside. Keeps potassium higher inside.
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what is exocytosis?
molecules exiting cell e.g. Vesicles releasing contents outside cell.
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what is endocytosis?
molecules entering cell Phagocytosis - cell eating. e.g. White blood cell eating bacteria Pinocytosis - cell drinking Receptor mediated endocytosis Molecule binds to protein receptor Ex. Cholesterol in liver cells.
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what are prokaryotic cells?
prokaryotic cells have a simpler structure (e.g. genetic material free floating in the cell and no nucleus), bacteria are a single prokaryotic cell.
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what are eukaryotic cells?
eukaryotic cells have a distinct nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, humans have eukaryotic cells.
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what is an organelle?
a specialised structure with a specific function inside a cell.
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what are mitochondria?
structures in the cytoplasm of all cells where respiration takes place. the chemical reaction that releases energy from glucose, happens here. this provides energy for life processes such as movement and growth.
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what is a nucleolus?
ribosomes are assembled here.
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what is the nucleus?
contains DNA.
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what is chloroplasts?
photosynthesis occurs here.
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what is the rough endoplasmic reticlum?
transports polypeptides and packages them into vesicles.
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what is the golgi body?
modifies and folds polypeptides.
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what is a vacuole?
contains cell sap- solution of glucose/ amino acids/ minerals.
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Card 2

Front

what do cell membranes include?

Back

intrinsic and extrinsic proteins; glycoproteins; phospholipids and cholesterol.

Card 3

Front

what are glycoproteins?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what are intrinsic proteins?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what are carrier proteins?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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