Human anatomy and physiology - senses

  • Created by: aarafa11
  • Created on: 08-04-20 18:27
what are the special senses
taste/ gustation; equilibrium; smell/olfaction; hearing; vision
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what are the types of general senses
somatic; visceral
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what are the types of general somatic senses
touch, pressure, itch, warm, cold, pain and proprioceptive sensations
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what are the types of general visceral senses
within the organs pressure, stretch, chemicals, hunger, nausea and temperature
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what are the similarities between somatic and visceral general senses
Their receptors tend to have a structure that is specialised to detect a specific stim
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Receptor Classification Based on Origin of Stimulus
exteroceptors; interoceptors/ visceroceptors; proprioceptors
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what is exteroceptors
Receptors sensitive to changes outside of body. Are found on or near the body surface: pain, pressure, touch, temperature and special sense organs (eye, ear, nose, mouth).
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what is interoceptors/ visceroceptors
Receive stimuli from viscera; stretch, temperature, chemical, taste.
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where is proprioceptors located
skeletal muscles, joints, tendons, and ligaments and inner ear; perceive stretch in these organs
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what do the encapsulated receptord do in proprioceptors
monitor stretch in muscles and tendons. E.g. Muscle spindles, Extrafusal fibers, Intrafusal
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receptors Classified by Stimulus Modality
mechanoreceptors; thermoreceptors; chemoreceptors; photoreceptors; osmoreceptors; nociceptors
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what is a nociceptors
Respond to pain and harmful stimuli leading to pain
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receptor Classification by Structure
free nerve ending; encapsulated nerve endings
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what is free nerve ending
Bare dendrites found in all tissues of body; especially abundant in epithelial and connective tissue; respond to pain, temperature, itch and light pressure
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what is encapsulated nerve endings
Dendrites enclosed in a capsule of connective tissue; vary in shape and distribution; Pressure, vibration, and some touch sensations
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what are the taste receptors
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where can you find chemoreceptors in the taste buds
on tongue, palate, cheeks, pharynx and epiglottis/papillae
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what are the types of papillae
filoform; foliate; fungiform; circumvallate
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where can you find fungiform papillae
widely distributed in the tongue
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what is distinctive about the circumvallate papillae
form a “V” at back of tongue
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what is the function of filoform papillae
do not sense taste, but the texture of foods
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what are the taste that we can discriminate
Sour, Bitter, Salty, Umami, sweet
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how do we percieve taste
taste receptors than relayed to brain via: CN VII (Facial), IX (Glossopharyngeal) and X (Vagus) nerves.
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how are taste and smell linked
Taste is highly dependent on smell for full perception of the odor, without smell we lose much of our taste.
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where are chemorectors located for smell
superior nasal concha and septum in the olfactory epithelium (nasal mucosa
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what form must odor be in to be able to smell it
liquid state to be perceived, thus they mix with mucus prior to be sensed by receptors
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how many odors can human smell
10,000 odors
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what receptors are used for smelling
Olfactory - they are bipolar
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how does olfactory receptors work
Olfactory nerve dendrites have olfactory cilia that bind the odors to them. The odor is relayed to the olfactory nerve axon which connects to the mitral cell dendrites of the olfactory bulb → brain.
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how do we percieve smell
the limbic system, hypothalamus and olfactory cortex
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how is hearing and equilibrium mediated
through the structures of the inner ear; all embedded in the temporal bones of the cranium
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how do we perceive sound
sound waves entering the external auditory canal which is received by the middle ear and relayed to the inner ear where it is then registered in the cochlea
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how do we maintain and perceive equilibrium
in the semi-circular canals of the inner ear.
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what is part of the outer ear
pinna/ airica; external auditory canal; tympanic membrane/ear drum
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what is the pinna/auricle
Covered with skin and made of elastic cartilage; helix and lobule
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what is the external auditory canal
Ear canal lined with skin and ceruminous glands passes through temporal bone
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what is tympanic membrane/ear drum
Separates outer ear from middle ear and is innervated with sensory fibers. Responds to air vibrations or sound waves and transfers energy to middle ear through bone.
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what is the ossicles in the middle of the ear
Three tiniest bones in the body form the coupling between the vibration of the eardrum and the forces exerted on the oval window of the inner ear
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what are the 3 types of ossicles in the middle of the ear
malleus; incus; stapes
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what is malleus ossicle - middle of the ear
looks like a hammer attaches to tympanic membrane and connected to the incus.
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what is incus ossicle - middle of the ear
Looks like an anvil and connected to the stapes
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what is stapes ossicle - middle of the ear
looks like a stirrup – footplate attaches to oval window of inner ear where it creates ossicilations in the scala vestibuli
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what is the function of the ossicles in the middle of the ear
ossicles increase the force incoming vibrations
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how do ossicles protect the inner ear
Middle ear muscles: stapedius inserts on stapes; tensor tympani inserts on malleus. Contract during loud noises and relieve tension on ossicles
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what is the body labyrinth - inner ear
temporal bone passage
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what does the body labyrinth (inner ear) consists of
vestubule; cochlea; semicircular canals lined with periosteum and contains perilymph
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what is the membranous labyrinth
Lines inside of bony labyrinth. It is lined with epithelium and is filled with endolymph (high in Na+, K+). Consists of semicircular ducts, utricle and saccule and the cochlear duct.
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what featurs cause hearing
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what does the cochlea look like
spiraling chamber of bony labyrinth. Looks like a snails shell, and spirals around modiolus.
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what are the chamber in the membranous labyrinth
Scala vestibuli –filled with perilymph abuts oval window; Cochlear duct –filled with endolymph and contains organ of Corti; Scala tympani –filled with perilymph abuts round window.
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how does the ear cause equalibrium
Vestibule houses the saccule and utricle which each contain a macculae that are receptor cells for head position when the head is still = static equilibrium. They also monitor head movements in a straight line = linear acceleration
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why are Semicircular canals are lined with a membranous semicircular duct
Ampulla is bulge at each end of canal and inside is the membranous ampulla which contains a crista ampullaris; These receptors detect head rotation or angular rotation.
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what do etricle and saccule in the macculae structure respond to
Static equilibrium; Linear acceleration
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Semicircular ducts with ampullae and Crista Ampullaris respond to
Detect angular rotation; Dynamic equilibrium
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facts about the eye and vision
Visual receptors 70% of all sensory input in the body; 40% of the cerebral cortex is used for visual perception. Eye balls are the sense organs for vision Eye is a sphere (1” in diameter) and is located in the orbital cavity in skull
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what are the Accessory structures of eye
Eyebrows; Eyelids with tarsal and ciliary glands; Eyelashes; Lateral and medial canthus (angles at corner of eye); Conjunctiva; Lacrimal apparatus; Extrinsic eye muscles (6)
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what is the purpose of Eyelids “palpebrae”
protect eyes from foreign objects and bright light.
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what are the 2 eyelids separated by
palpebral fissure
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what is an canthus
The outer or inner corner of the eye, where the upper and lower lids meet.
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what is Lacrimal caruncle
median canthus
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what is Levator palpebrae
Muscle raises and lowers eye lids
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what is Tarsal glands
Eyelids secrete oily substance that keeps eyes moist.
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what is the purpose of eyelash
margin of each lid help to keep substances from entering eye; ciliary glands open into lash follicle.
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what is Conjunctiva
Transparent mucous membrane covering the inner surface of the eyelid
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what is palpebral conjunctiva
Inner surface of eyelids
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what is bulbar conjunctiva
Anterior surface of eye
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what are the similarities bulbar conjunctiva & palpebral conjunctiva
Made up of stratified columnar epithelium with numerous goblet cells that secrete mucous and keep eyeball and lids moist; When eye is closed a slit-like space forms= conjunctival sac.
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what is Lacrimal apparatus
Keeps surface of eye moist with tears from lacrimal glands.
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what does Lacrimal fluid “tears” contain
Mucus, antibodies and lysozymes that destroy bacteria.
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what controls all the movement of the eyeball socket
Extrinsic eye
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what are the muscle found in the eye
superior rectus; inferior rectus; medial rectus; lateral rectus; superior ; inferior oblique
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what do all the rectus musle in the eye do
Superior rectus: CN III- elevates eye; Inferior rectus: CN III- depresses eye; Medial rectus: CN III- moves eye medially; Lateral rectus: CN VI- moves eye laterally
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what do all the oblique musle in the eye do
Superior oblique: CN IV- depresses eye and turns it laterally; Inferior oblique: CN III- elevates eye and turns it laterally
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what do the roman numerals mean of the eye musle
III- occulomotor; IV- trochlear; VI- abducens
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what is the structure of the eye ball
The eye is a sphere with a bulge (cornea) at the front and a stem at the back (optic nerve). The outside is covered by a tough outer covering called fibrous tunic;
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what are the tunics that are found in the eye
fibrous; vascular; sensory
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what are the chambers found in the eye
anterior and posterior
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what seperates the tunics and the chambers
lens and iris
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what is the anterior chamber filled with
aqueous humor
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what is the posterior chamber filled with
vitreous body
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what fills a major proportion of the posterior wall
visual receptor field (retina)
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what regulates the light coming through the retina
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what does the fibrous tunic consists of
cornea and sclera.
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what is cornea
Avascular and transparent and allows light to pass through. It is made of 100’s of sheets of collagen fibers sandwiched between two layers of epithelium. Highly innervated and sensitive to touch or particles on it.
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what is sclera
The white of the eye which protects, shapes and serves as the anchor site for the extrinsic eye muscles
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what is limbus
Junction between sclera and cornea- stem cells here between cornea and conjunctiva allow for continual renewal of cornea
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what is Scleral venous sinus
Allows for drainage of aqueous humor
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what does the vascular tunic consists of
choroid, ciliary body and iris.
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what is choroid
Highly vascular dark brown pigmented layer that covers 5/6 of posterior chamber. Melanocytes produce melanin that accounts for dark brown color of choroid.
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what is ciliary body
Anterior to choroid consists of ciliary muscle (sm. m.), and the ciliary process. Radiating off of ciliary process are fine fibrils that attach to the iris and control its thickness.
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what is the iris
Coloured portion of the eye and constricts and dilates to regulate the amount of light entering into the eye.
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what the layers found in the Sensory tunic “Retina”
thin pigmented layer and a thick neural layer
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what is the outer layer of the Sensory tunic “Retina”
Pigmented layer; Beginning of visual pathway to brain
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what is the inner layer of the Sensory tunic “Retina”
Neural layer contains rods and cones Layer where light rays are deciphered and converted into an impulse to be relayed to brain. Ganglion cells- synapse with bipolar cells and make a 90 degree turn on retinal surface to go into optic nerve. Bipolar c
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what is the purpose of rod cells in sensory tunic
black & white: 250mill in the pigmented layer of retina; low light and peripheral vision receptors; Contains rhodopsin which helps to generate electrical signals but must be regenerated using vitamin A
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what is the purpose of cone cells in sensory tunic
colour: red, blue, green; 6mill in the pigmented layer of retina and macula lutea; in bright light and are high acuity color receptors
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how do the cone and rod cell work
Contain photopigments that convert light into electrical impulses; Located in the membrane folds of the outer segment
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what is the optic disc (blind spot)
Site where optic nerve exits eye ball; Small flat yellowish spot in exact center of posterior eye; Contains only CONES, and no bipolar or ganglion cells to scatter light;The region where the lens focuses the image onto the retina
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what is the definition of the lens
Composed of proteins called crystallins arranged in layers much like an onion. It is completely transparent and lacks any blood vessels
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what is the lens attached to
Lens is enclosed in a clear connective tissue capsule and is held in place by encircling zonular fibers which attach it to the ciliary processes
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Lens divides the eye into two cavities
Anterior chamber; Posterior chamber
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