Human anatomy and physiology - Practical

  • Created by: aarafa11
  • Created on: 11-05-20 15:02
How is respiratory status assessed
Lung function test
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What is evaluating respiratory function
Frequently used in the early diagnosis and management of a variety of pulmonary diseases
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Lung function test is concerned with
establishing volumes when accounting for age, height, gender, body position, degree of effort exerted during normal tests and pulmonary disease tests
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what is spirometry
measurement of breath used to assess static lung function --> help diagnose respiratory complication; assess dynamic lung function --> info for dynamic performance capacity of an individual respiratory system
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What is the lung function test
Complete evaluation of the respiratory system including patient history, physical examinations, and tests of pulmonary function. The primary purpose of pulmonary function testing is to identify the severity of pulmonary impairment
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an example of sever pulmonary disorder
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
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what is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Group of lung conditions that cause breathing difficulties. It includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis
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what does emphysema do
It is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that causes damage to the air sacs in the lungs
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what does chronic bronchitis do
It is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that causes long-term inflammation of the airways
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what is Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV)
The maximum volume of air that an individual can exhale on breathing and deeply and rapidly as possible over fixed period of time
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How do they make the Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) more comfortable
this is done over a 15-second time period before being extrapolated to a value for one minute expressed as liters/minute
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Forced vital capacity (FVC)
The amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled from your lungs after taking the deepest breath possible, as measured by spirometry
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what is a normal FVC and FEV1
equal to or greater that 80%
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what is a normal FEV1/FVC
equal to or greater than 70%
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what is forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEW1)
The volume of air (in liters) exhaled in the first second during forced exhalation after maximal inspiration.
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what is peak expiratory flow (PEF) / peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR)
A person's maximum speed of expiration, as measured with a peak flow meter, a small, hand-held device used to monitor a person's ability to breathe out air
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what is FEV1/FVC (FEV1%)
Ratio that measures the amount of air you can forcefully exhale from your lungs
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what is the 'Wright' peak flow metre
Measure the peak flow in asthmatics and others with potential respiratory problems
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'Wright' peak flow metre uses what units
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what is a Vitalograph micro spirometer
Measures air flow by detecting the pressure difference created across a fine wire mess when air passes through it
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what can the Vitalograph micro spirometer meausre
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what information do you have to add to the Vitalograph micro spirometer
age, height, gender, weight
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what kind of positions must you do in a Vitalograph micro spirometer
standing, sitting, supine, and 1 with the straws
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what is the difference between dynamic lung and static
D) mostly derived from vital capacity; for diagnosis and follow up of obstructive lung diseases. S) for evaluation of obstructive; restrictive ventilatory defects
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When might you use dynamic lung function test
those involved in activities that demand high flow rates
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what are the criteria for determining dynamic lug function performance
speed and volume of air that can be moved in one breathing cycle
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Normal MVV for males and females
M) 47-253 l.min^-1 F) 55-139 l.min^-1
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What might affect the MVV
age, body size, respiratory history
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why is MVV preformed less
causes distress and even syncope
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What is total lung capacity (TLC)
Volume of air in lungs after max inspiration
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What is vital capacity (VC)
Max volume of air forced out after max inspiration
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WHat is resting tidal volume (RTV)
Amount of air breathed in or out during normal respiration
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What is a normal RTV
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What is residual volume (RV)
Amount of air left in lungs after max exhilation
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what is Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
Amount of air that can be breathed out after normal breathing
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what is the inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
The additional air that can be forcibly inhaled after the inspiration of a normal tidal volume
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what is the functional reserve volume (FRV)
Amount of air in lungs after tidal breath out
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What is inspiratory capacity (IC)
Volume of air that can be inhaled after tidal breath out
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What is minimal volume (MV)
required to prevent collapse (30-120ml)
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How does body position influence lung function
Gravity is a factor responsible for uneven distributions of ventilation and blood flow in the healthy lung
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What body position effect the arterial oxygen tension most
Arterial oxygen tensions were greater in the lateral position compared with the supine position
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What are the types of blood pressure monitors
Manual: stethoscope and sphygmanometer. Digital
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What is a normal blood pressure in adults
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What is systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP)
S) highest BP D) lowest BP
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What happens to blood pressure after rhythmic exercise
systolic pressure increases and diastolic pressure remains the same
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What is Exercise capacity
Is the maximum amount of physical exertion that a patient can sustain. Used as a variable in human physiology
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What is VO2 max
The max amount of oxygen a person can use
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Who has a higher VO2 max
fitter the person
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What is mean arterial pressure (MAP)
single value used to represent an average blood pressure within an individual
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What is an advantage of mean arterial pressure (MAP)
no separate values for contraction and relaxation phases of the heart beat
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what is the disadvantage of mean arterial pressure (MAP)
Slightly less than the arithmetic SBP & DBP. Though at high rates can be close to the mean
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what is Cardiac output
The amount of blood the heart pumps through the circulatory system in a minute
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what is stroke volume
The amount of blood put out by the left ventricle of the heart in one contraction
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What determine the cardiac output
The stroke volume and the heart rate
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what is the central venous pressure
the pressure in the thoracic vena cava near the right atrium (therefore CVP and right atrial pressure are essentially the same)
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what is an average mean arterial pressure (MAP) for an adult
60 mmHg
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factors effecting blood pressure (BP)
smoking, overweight/obese, excess salt, excess alcohol, stress, lack of hysical activityage, genetic,
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What are the types of contraction
isotonic, isometric,
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what is isometric contraction
No movement of joint so no change in length
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what is isotonic contraction
movement of joint by constant tension in the muscle as the muscle changes length
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how do our muscle contract
filaments slide over one another becoming overlapped
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what can effect muscle contraction
angle of the joint
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what is the optimum point of strength in a muscle
when the filaments are in between. NOT overlapped enough or too overlapped
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factors affect grip strength
age, upper arm length, fore arm length, skeletal muscle mass percentage, arms subcutaneous fat percentage
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What is the correlation between athletic ability and finger length
They found that the ratio of the length of the second ("pointer") finger and the length of the fourth ("ring") finger -- called the "digit ratio" -- is favorably related to muscular strength in boys
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how does athletic ability increase by finger length
Testosterone is the natural steroid hormone that enhances sport, athletic and fitness test performance. In general, people with smaller digit ratios are better athletes
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how does a Typical patella stretche reflex work
stretches the patella tendon, knee extend as a stretch reflex occurs via pathways to an from the spinal chord
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What are the stroop tests score associated with
cognitive flexibility, attention, resistance to interference from outside stimuli and creativity
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Where do you use the stroop test
clinical evaluation of psychopathology and brain dysfunction
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What is evaluating respiratory function


Frequently used in the early diagnosis and management of a variety of pulmonary diseases

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Lung function test is concerned with


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Card 4


what is spirometry


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Card 5


What is the lung function test


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