HSC10 (Diagnosis, Treatment and Preventative Strategies): 3.10.1 Diagnosing Disease

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Give three main points that a GP will do whilst taking Medical History.
1) Ask patient to describe what is wrong, and listen carefully to response. 2) Ask key questions about persistence, duration and intensity of symptoms. 3) "Clinical Interview" used where questions are based on replies from previous questions.
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Name four things the GP may ask about.
1) Previous illness and treatment. 2) If medication or treatment is being taken currently 3) The patient's lifestyle and occupation. 4) Previous history of disease in other family members.
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Why does the GP ask these questions?
1) help to clarify the problem. 2) discover patients medical history 3) help make a diagnosis.
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Name the methods used in a physical examination. (7 of them)
1) Visual examination 2) Use of stethoscope 3) Palpation 4) Percussion 5) Reflex Testing 6) Measuring temperature 7) Measuring blood pressure
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Explain what happens in a visual examination.
The affected part of the body will be looked at, so that they can determine if there are conditions such as arthritis and skin rashes occurring.
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Explain what a stethoscope is.
It is a simple device that channels sound from a small metal dish along two tubes to the GP's ears.
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How is a stethoscope used?
It is placed against the patient's body in various places, the GP listens to the heart, arteries, lungs and digestive system.
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Breathing will sound noisy if...
the airways are obstructed, or if there is excess fluid present in the lungs.
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What is palpation?
It is the feeling of a part of a patient's body with fingers
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Give two reasons why palpations are used.
1) To detect abnormalities in organs (tumours and swelling can be felt through skin). 2) Enables GP to see if patient feels pain where the organ is when pressure is applied.
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Explain how percussion is carried out.
One or two fingers place against patient's body, these fingers are tapped with other hand whilst listening to the resulting sound.
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Explain what a hollow sound and a muffled sound mean for someone's lung during percussion.
A hollow sound will indicate the lungs are clear of fluid, whereas a muffled sound means that they have fluid within their lungs.
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What is reflex testing used for?
It is used to detect damage to nerve pathways.
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How is reflex testing carried out?
Leg is relaxed, and weight of leg is supported by the thigh. A point below the patella is tapped with a rubber hammer. This stretches the tendon and sends a nerve impulse from the spinal cord. Another impulse is then triggered for thigh to contract.
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How can you tell if there is damage to a nerve pathway?
If the person doesn't jerk their lower leg upwards, then it indicates there is some damage or disease to the pathway or spinal cord.
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What two pieces of equipment are used to measure temperature?
A thermometer and an infrared ear thermometer.
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What is the normal body temperature?
37°C
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What piece of equipment is used to measure blood pressure?
A sphygmomanometer.
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What are the names of the two readings collected to measure blood pressure?
Systolic and Diastolic
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Explain how a sphygmomanometer is used.
A hollow rubber cuff placed around patients arm (just above elbow), pump is then used to inflate the cuff which stops blood flowing through artery to hand. Air is released from cuff slowly so blood can be let through the artery again.
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When are the systolic and diastolic readings taken?
When the first pulse is heard, and when the last pulse is heard.
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Why are diagnostic tests carried out?
So that the GP will have independent confirmation of specific diagnosis.
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Name two ways in which the use of computers aid diagnosis.
1) Looking at database with patient's medical records, checking for previous illness and treatment. 2) Using the Clinical Decisions Support Systems (CDSS) which has lots of info about diseases and diagnosing so that medical errors are reduced.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

1) Previous illness and treatment. 2) If medication or treatment is being taken currently 3) The patient's lifestyle and occupation. 4) Previous history of disease in other family members.

Back

Name four things the GP may ask about.

Card 3

Front

1) help to clarify the problem. 2) discover patients medical history 3) help make a diagnosis.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

1) Visual examination 2) Use of stethoscope 3) Palpation 4) Percussion 5) Reflex Testing 6) Measuring temperature 7) Measuring blood pressure

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The affected part of the body will be looked at, so that they can determine if there are conditions such as arthritis and skin rashes occurring.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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