HSC07 (Food and Fitness): 3.7.1 Exercise-related fitness and nutrients in food

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  • Created by: Beth
  • Created on: 01-04-16 14:40
Aerobic Fitness is...
a person's capacity to take up, transport and use sufficient oxygen to sustain physical activity for long periods of time (over 12 minutes).
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Aerobic
means "with oxygen"
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The higher levels of aerobic fitness means...
an activity can be done for long amounts of time without tiring.
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What is a person's aerobic fitness influenced by?
Respiration
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What is the equation for Aerobic Fitness?
glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy
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Respiration is....
the process by how the body gets oxygen into body cells, where it is used to release energy.
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What are the three stages of respiration?
- External Respiration - Oxygen Transport - Oxygen Use
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What is external respiration?
It it where oxygen is taken into the body through 1) nasal/oral capacity 2) larynx 3) trachea 4) bronchi 5) bronchioles 6) alveoli
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What occurs within the alveoli?
Gas exchange
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What happens in Oxygen Transport?
Oxygen transferred into blood, and CO2 moves out of blood stream and is breathed out of the body. The oxygen combines with haemoglobin in red blood cells and becomes oxyhaemoglobin.
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What happens in Oxygen Use?
Oxygen is combined with chemicals from food to release energy.
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Aerobic Respiration is...
performed when supply of oxygen to the cells is high. However, will not take place if the body doesn't have enough oxygen in the cells.
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Anaerobic Fitness...
takes place when the body is unable to bring enough oxygen into the body, or it cannot get to cells quick enough.
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Give an example of when Anaerobic Fitness is used.
Sprinting (as the body cannot get enough oxygen into the cells)
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What is the equation for Anaerobic Respiration?
glucose - lactic acid + some energy.
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What is VO2 max?
It is the most accurate measure of an individual's aerobic fitness. It is the maximum amount of oxygen (MLs) that the body can take in and use per minute, per kilogram of body weight.
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A higher VO2 max means...
a bigger lung capacity - more red blood cells are able to transport oxygen - lots of capillaries to deliver oxygen.
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How does gender affects VO2 max?
Females have higher proportion of body fat compared to muscles, whereas men tend to be the other way round. Therefore males have a higher VO2 Max whereas Women have a lower VO2 max.
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Names five short term effects of exercise.
- higher rate of ventilation - deeper breathing - flushing - higher heart rate - higher stroke volume meaning there is a higher cardiac output - sweating - higher blood pressure meaning blood circulates faster.
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Name five long term effects of exercise.
- higher endurances - reduced stress on the heart - larger lung capacity - less body fat - higher stroke volume - higher rate of oxygen uptake VO2 max.
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What is cardiac output?
It is the volume of bloody your heart can pump out per minute. It is the stroke volume times by heart rate.
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What is muscular fitness?
It is the capacity of a person's muscles to exert force (e.g. lifting) and is the strength and stamina to cope with everyday life.
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Name the two types of strength.
Maximum and Dynamic
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What is Maximum Strength?
It is the greatest force a muscle can exert in a single contraction i.e. holding up weight
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What is Dynamic Strength?
It is the ability of muscle to contract at speed whilst overcoming resistance i.e. exerting force rapidly - cycling and sprinting.
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What is Stamina?
It is the ability to keep going without excessive fatigues, therefore able to sustain physical activity.
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What is flexibility?
It is the range of movement that is possible by the whole body or part of the body around a single joint.
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What is mobility?
It is the ability to move and change direction with speed, balance and/or endurance.
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Carbohydrates are...
- made up of CO2, hydrogen and oxygen. - the main source of energy for the body.
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Name the two types of carbohydrates.
Simple and Complex
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Are simple carbs a) sugars or b) starches &NSP?
Sugars. E.g. chocolate, honey, cakes.
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Are complex carbs a) sugars or b) starches & NSP?
Starches and non starch polysaccharides.
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What is the function of sugar and starches?
- starch is digested and stored as glycogen in muscles and livers. Glycogen is used in respiration.
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Where can starches be found?
Bread, pasta, potatoes and rice.
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What are the functions of soluble fibres and NSP, and where can they be found?
1) attract water so that they are turned into gel during digestion, meaning that it slows down. 2) found in - oat bran, beans, nuts and lentils.
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What are the functions of insoluble fibres and NSP, and where can they be found?
1) adds bulk to faeces, which means it helps food pass quickly through the stomach and intestine. 2) found in sweetcorn.
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Which is better: soluble or insoluble fibre, and why?
Soluble fibre is better as it lowers cholesterol, and aids digestion.
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Fats...
protect organs, provide energy stores and create a layer of insulation on a person.
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Fats are found in..
Solids and liquids, but do not mix with water.
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What is the name of a fat molecule?
Triglyceride.
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What happens to a triglyceride when digested?
It breaks down as fatty acids in the blood stream, and as glycerol in the liver.
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Name the two main types of fats.
Saturated and unsaturated.
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Name three facts about saturated fats, and where they are found.
1) solid at room temperature 2) no double bonds 3) bond to as many hydrogens as possible. 4) Found in meat, cheese and butter.
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Name the two types of fatty acids which are labelled as unsaturated, and how many double bonds do they have.
Monounsaturated fatty acids (one double bond), polyunsaturated fatty acid (many double bonds).
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Where are unsaturated fats found?
In oils, as they help to build cell membranes.
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What is cholesterol?
It is the fatty substance known as lipid made in the liver, and is vital for normal functioning of the body.
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How is cholesterol carried around the body?
It combines with proteins to make lipoproteins which is carried around in the blood stream.
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Name the two types of cholesterol, and what they do.
1)High density - carries proteins from other parts of body back to liver (therefore 'good') 2)Low-density - makes cholesterol build up in the arteries (therefore 'bad')
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What are proteins made up of?
Amino acid chain molecules
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Where are proteins found?
Meat, fish, nuts, cheese, eggs, milk and can be made in the body.
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What are the functions of protein?
1) BODY STRUCTURE - build, maintain & repair constituents of muscles. 2) BODY MOVEMENT - enable us to move when muscle fibres contract and relax. 3) ENZYMES - regulate & enable processes of chemical change - used in respiration.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

means "with oxygen"

Back

Aerobic

Card 3

Front

an activity can be done for long amounts of time without tiring.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Respiration

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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