How Psychology works

  • Created by: lilly557
  • Created on: 11-04-14 13:16
Goldstein 1998 study- Whats the sample size?
Was a sample of 199 schizophrenics both male and female.
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Goldstein 1998 study- Procedure
re diagnosed 10 years later with new version of DSM.
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Goldstein 1998 study- What was assessed?
Everyday functioning using a variety of methods - martial status, occupation, peer relationships, isolation and peer interests.
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Goldstein 1998 study- what was measured?
The number of hospitlisation over 10 year period measures
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Goldstein 1998 study- evaluate
Large sample size- generalisable/ Rediagnosis conducted by 2 independent experts / Objective and reliable data e.g. number and duration of hospitalization/ Men and women matched with employment status but jobs varied between sexes
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Leaflet- Who was your target audience?
Family and Friends of those suffering from schizophrenia
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Leaflet- Intended outcome of your leaflet?
Help inform those supporting suffers of schizophrenia of how to support and characteristics they should look out for
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Leaflet- one reason you used the material for you leaflet?
The material within leaflet is easily read by people without mental health knowledge. Used simple terms and positive language to prevent stress
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Leaflet- How did you collect secondary data?
Internet- Mind/NHS - Best way to care for someone with schizophrenia. Looked at private clinics and health professionals on what type of care. Compared the information for simularities then included them in my leaflet
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What is it used for Systematic Desensitisation?
To treat people with phobia's
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What is systematic desensitsation based on?
Classical Conditioning
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What will the patient have?
There own hierarchy of their fear from least to most frightening aspect of their fear
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What does the therapist do?
Takes them through each stage teaching them to relax and stay calm. Start from least frightening to most.
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When will the patient progress to each stage?
When the patient feels comfortable and in control of the situation
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Evaluate Systematic desenitsation
Only looks at observable symptoms not underlying issue/Only helps those with phobias or similar anxiety disorders/ Unlikely to help aggro-phobia/
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Why is Systematic desenitsation ethical?
Patient in control of progression and speed of treatment / Psychoanalysis may be better if underlying issue as can prevent problems being caused by just addressing the observable symptoms
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Outline one explanation of uni-polar depression
Depression caused by shortage of one or more monamine neurotransmitters. Low serotonin , dopamine and noradrenaline can cause anxiety and depression
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What does the cognitive explanation suggest?
Faulty thought processes fits better with the high success rate of CBT treatment
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What could cause the faulty thoughts?
chemical imbalance and might not be the cause of depression
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Provide evidence for Uni-polar depression
clinically depressed do interpret events more negatively than non-sufferers/
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What did Clark and Beck find out?
All levels of depression for a negative cognitive triad responded through CBT
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What are the weaknesses of Uni-Polar depression?
depression might not be caused by chemical imbalance as medication doesn't always work
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What are the problems with drug treatment?
Neurotransmitter levels increase quickly but improvement associated with drugs takes time to work
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What did Rausch et all show?
Success of SSRI treatment is dependent of sufferer's genes suggesting another aspect of biological substrate
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Describe statistical definition of abnormality?
Behavior seen as rare in the population will be deemed abnormal/ Uses normal distribution curve with both extremes deemed equally abnormal and the middle region as normal/
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Whats the cut off point for statistical abnormality?
generally put at +/- 2 SD from the mean
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Whats the social norm definition of abnormality?
behavior is abnormal if perceived as different to that seen acceptable in society E.G - if doctor comes from different culture might not of seen the behavior. Abnormal behavior will vary between cultures
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Explain one factor that would make a study scientific?
The data collected will be empirical this means it is objective and can be tested
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Explain why the Psychodynamic approach is seen unscientific?
Fails to provide objective evidence , cannot support or refute theories like other approaches, evidence heavily based on interpretation e.g. analysis of symbols meaning it is subjective
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what is a weakness of the use of case studies in the Psychodynamic approach?
makes it difficult to generalise conclusions to wider population, not replicable another criteria for scientific status
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identify one psychological approach other than psychodynamic?
Biological or learning
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Why is it considered scientific?
uses scientific methods to create and test hypothesis , uses objectivity by collecting quantifiable data, can be replicable .
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Does someones upbringing make them who they are?
reinforcement of behavior by parents will develop a person , genes we inherit determine how our brain works, intelligence and the environment will have little impact/ role models - parent drug addict child more likely to become one.
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Does someones upbringing make them who they are? - sport
low female sport role models means low female participation , is now increase in female sporting particpation suggests way we are brought up as change wouldn't of happened,
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Goldstein 1998 study- Procedure


re diagnosed 10 years later with new version of DSM.

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Goldstein 1998 study- What was assessed?


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Card 4


Goldstein 1998 study- what was measured?


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Card 5


Goldstein 1998 study- evaluate


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