How was apartheid codified and implemented, 1948-59

What was the early priority of the national party?
To stay in political power
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How many members of parliament were sent to Namibia
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Why were coloured people a threat to the NP?
Coloured people shared cultural history with whites but the NP wanted them to become a separate racial category.They had voted overwhemingly for the UP
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What did the NP do?
The NP passed the 1951 seperate representation of voters act but failed to get two thirds of the majority. the nationalists had shown they would act ruthlessly to gain power
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How much did the NP increase its vote by in 1953
They increased their vote from 400,000 to 600,000
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Who was Verwoed, and what did he think of Africans?
He was Minister of Native affairs from 1950-58 and president until 1966. He was convinved that African people saw themsevles as tribal people who were loyal to their kingdom
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As a result of what Verweord though of Africans, what act did he pass and what was it
The Bantu Authorities act (1951) which aimed to harness the instituon of African chieftaincy and ensure such traditonal authroities were appointed throughout African reserves
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What was the Bantu Self government act Veroweord passed in 1959
This envisaged self-governing African units based around tradional authorites.
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What were the NP scared about sex between blacks and whites and what law did they pass
There concern grew from religious belief, and for others it was a racial feeling. NP entacted the Mixed Marriage Act of 1949, and Immorality act of 1950 which prohibted marriage and sex by whites
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What was the Population registration act of 1950
This assigned everyone in South Africa into 1 of 4 racial categories.
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What did the Group Areas act do>
It provided powers to eradicate non-whites from owning houses or shops near cities ceenters. This was so central parts of the ciites would be largely in white hands
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What were the name of the 3 most well known zones of the group areas act
Sophiatown, in Johanesburg, District Six in Cape Town, and Cate Manor in Durban
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What dud the seperate amenities act of 1953 do
It made it legal to provide seperate facilities for black people
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How did the NP reduce migration to the cities
The natives abolition of passes made a it a requirement for africans to carry reference which they had to present on demand. This right was specified by the urban areas act
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In what year were reference books extended to women
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How many black people were recorded as literate in the 1951 census
24 percent
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What did the Bantu Education act do, what was it ?
It extended education to African students and brought African students under state control
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Why did the NP want to keep African children in school?
There was a fear of tsosis, (street youths) and people joining gangs
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What was expanding african education vital for the labour market
There was a need for African workers in factories and somed egree of literacy and numercy was seen as valuable.
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What university was a lot of black students going to
Unviersity of Fort hare, and the university had become a key center for black students opposing apartheid.
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What did Tomilson believe should happen to former reserves ?
He said they should be economically developed and should be at the heart of apartheid.
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How much did he suggest the state should invest in bantustans?
£100 milly
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What 3 recommendations stood out
Private enterpirse should be encouraged to invest in these areas, major funding for rural industries and increasing the size of the plot which implied moving families of the land in order to create economic units for farmers
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What was Verewoerds response to Tomilson
He did not believe that whites should spend so much, and didnt want to create industries that could compete with urban white businesses. He also pointed out that africans may loose land and flee to the cities for work
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What was Betterment?
A strategy that would stop enviromental degradation and enable Africans to intensify their farming without destroying soil.
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What were the inadequancies of the Bantustans
The national party were not prepared to divide the land equally between whites and blacks despite white land being bough to extend homelands
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What was the Congress Alliance
A broad coalition of anti-apartheid organisations, including the ANC, the indian congress, trade unions and others
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How many leaders were arrested from the congress alliance and why
156 members were arrested and accused of high treason and the prosecutors tried to prove that they were trying to overtrhwo the government
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What the result of the Treason trial?
#The trial brought leaders to Prestoria which allowed them to express their ideas. The prosecuters were unable to prove their case and the accused were acquitted in 1961
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Why were coloured people a threat to the NP?


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What did the NP do?


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How much did the NP increase its vote by in 1953


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