How important was the role of key individuals and groups and how were they affected by developments during Henry VII's reign?

Anne of Brittany
Helped shelter Henry from Yorkists
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Ferdinand and Isabella
United Spain with their marriage, married Prince Arthur to Catherine of Aragon and gave their blessing for Henry VIII to marry Catherine after Arthur's death
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James IV of Scotland
Treaty of Ayton 1502, Welcomed warbeck, Alliance with France
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Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I
Supported Warbeck but was too busy with domestic issues to provide any intervention
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Charles VIII of France
Henry led military intervention in Brittany to stop annexation, English supported anti-French coalitions in Italian war, War against France
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Margaret of Burgundy
Magnus intercusus trade agreement, Trade embargo on goods from Flanders, Malus intercursus trade agreement, Provided support to Warbeck, Provided support to Simnel and gave him 3000 soldiers
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Pope Clement VII
Good relations with Henry VII - Made John Morton a Cardinal n 1493
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How did Henry VII force the nobility to support him by showing them the unwelcome consequences of opposition?
Attainders, Attacks on retaining, Financial controls and executions - Lord Stanley
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Attacks on retaining
Put pressure on tenants to pay rent or on juries to return verdict master wanted - Lords and Commons had to swear they would not retain illegally - laws passed in 1485 and 1504 against illegal retaining
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Financial controls
2/3 of nobility held under bonds - Raised money from someone he didn't trust and weakened their power, Forced nobles to behave or face a ruinous fine
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Attainders
Seize titles and possessions of nobles suspected of disloyalty, Increasing severity as reign progressed - 138 attainders passed - 46 reversed - 51 of these attainders were in the years 1504-1509
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How many nobles received the Order of the Garter in the reign of Henry VII?
37
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How many Earls and Barons did Henry VII create?
Only created one Earl and five Barons
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Why did Henry VII depend on the nobility?
To maintain law and order and enforce the kings authority in the region and extended local regional control - they used JPs
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Peers during Henry VII's reign
Peers dropped from 57 to 44
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Why was Henry cautious with the nobility?
They were a massive constraint on his power and were the group that was most likely to cause the biggest internal threat - rebellions
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Was Henry successful at dealing with the nobility?
Kept largely under control but increased bitterness towards the King
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How did Henry buy the support of nobles?
Rewarding them with land and titles - Patronage
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Patronage
Loyalty was rewarded with lands and titles - Some grants at the beginning but didn't want to increase nobles power so limited his use of patronage - Number of nobles fell by a 1/4
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What was the largest group within the Royal council?
Those with a church background - 1485-1509, 50% of council was clerics
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Earl of Oxford
Member of royal council - Great chamberlain and Lord Admiral
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Thomas Howard
Member of royal council - Earl of Surrey - Made lord Treasurer in 1501
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John Morton
Member of royal council - was against Richard III - Churchmen/lawyer - Archbishop of Canterbury 1486 - Cardinal in 1493 - encouraged nobility to offer loans to the crown - forced everyone to hand over money
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From 1485-1509, how many royal councillors were there?
Total of 227 - attendance usually totalled about 40 members - most prominent being John Morton and Reginald Bray who were crucial in raising funds for Bosworth and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster respectively
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Royal council
Most trusted supporters-Inner circle of nobility-Educated professionals, especially lawyers, who advised the King on matters of State and acted in a judicial capacity-Henry attended meetings regularly and chose councillors by ability and loyalty
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Jasper Tudor
Duke of Bedford - became most powerful nobleman in Wales
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Court of General surveyors
Crown lands
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Court of Requests
Dealt with legal cases involving those who could not afford the high costs of the normal system
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Council Learned in law
Introduced in 1495 to defend Henry's position as a feudal landlord-Dealt with crown lands and Duchy of Lancaster-Empson and Dudley
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Sir Richard Empson
In 1504, Sir Richard Empson became chancellor of the Duchy and President of the Royal Council - he rigorously asserted royal feudal rights and later admitted that he made up feudal dues in more than 80 cases
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Empson and Dudley
Made bonds and recognisances work efficiently - raised extraction of money - universally hated and feared - executed by Henry VIII
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Pretenders to the throne
Perkin Warkbeck and Lambert Simnel - Challenged Henry's claim to the throne and attracted dissatisfied nobles and foreign rulers wanting to undermine or be rid of Henry altogether - used by Yorkists - justify claim because Henry 'right of conquest'
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Lambert Simnel
Claimed to be Earl of Warwick-Henry proved real one was in tower-Appeared in Ireland and joined by the Yorkist claimant, the Earl of Lincoln & 3,000 German mercenaries supplied by Margaret of Burgundy
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Who supported Lamert Simnel?
John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln - Margaret of Burgundy - Yorkist lord Earl of Kildare proclaimed him King
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Battle of Stoke 1487
Lambert Simnel defeated - last battle of Wars of the Roses - Raised little support in the north - Lincoln and several Yorkist leaders killed - Simnel defeated and allowed to work in royal kitchens
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Perkin Warbeck
Claimed to be Richard of York - Appeared in Ireland 1491
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Who supported Perkin Warbeck?
Lord Stanley(executed), Maximilian(busy), James IV of Scotland, Charles VIII of France and Margaret of Burgundy
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What did James IV of Scotland do on Warbeck's behalf?
Invaded England in 1497 - led to a disaster defeat - Warbeck gave himself up - executed in 1499 after he tried to escape the Tower
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How did Charles VIII of France support Perkin Warbeck?
Recognised his claim and welcomed him - to embarrass Henry whilst he annexed Brittany - Charles made peace with Henry in 1492
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What happened to Perkin Warbeck after Charles VIII of France made peace with Henry VII?
Forced to move to Burgundy where he was welcomed by Margaret and the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I - both were busy with domestic issues to provide him support
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

United Spain with their marriage, married Prince Arthur to Catherine of Aragon and gave their blessing for Henry VIII to marry Catherine after Arthur's death

Back

Ferdinand and Isabella

Card 3

Front

Treaty of Ayton 1502, Welcomed warbeck, Alliance with France

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Supported Warbeck but was too busy with domestic issues to provide any intervention

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Henry led military intervention in Brittany to stop annexation, English supported anti-French coalitions in Italian war, War against France

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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