B3.2 How has life on Earth evolved?

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How long ago did life on Earth begin?
Approximately 3500 million years ago
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What did life on Earth (including species that are now extinct) evolve from?
From simple living things
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What is between individuals of the same species and can it be passed on to offspring?
Variation and some of this variation is genetic so can be passed on to offspring
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How does genetic variation occur?
Mutations (changes that occur in genes)
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What can happen to mutated genes in sex cells?
Can be passed on to offspring and may occasionally produce new characteristics
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Describe natural selection
1. Due to genetic variation some individuals are better adapted. 2. When competing for resources these are more likely to survive and reproduce. 3. This could lead to an increase in individuals with beneficial characteristics in later generations
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Describe the similarities between natural selection and selective breeding
1.Both ways of breeding 2.Produce changes in characteristics 3.Rely on variation 4. Due to DNA mutations 5. Select most favourable characteristics 6. Characteristics are passed onto offspring 7. Over time more individuals possess the characteristics
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Describe the differences between natural selection and selective breeding
1. NS occurs naturally but SB is controlled by humans 2. NS takes longer than SB 3. NS selects traits that are useful for survival and SB selects traits that are useful to humans
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What is involved in producing a new species in the process of evolution?
The combined effect of mutations, environmental changes, natural selection and isolation
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What is the evidence for evolution?
Is provided by the fossil record and from analysis of similarities and differences in the DNA of organisms
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Why is Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection a better scientific explanation than Lamarck’s?
Darwin’s was the result of many observations and creative thought (e.g. fits with advances in understanding of genetics) whereas Lamarck’s has no evidence or mechanism for inheritance of acquired characteristics
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Card 2

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What did life on Earth (including species that are now extinct) evolve from?

Back

From simple living things

Card 3

Front

What is between individuals of the same species and can it be passed on to offspring?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How does genetic variation occur?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What can happen to mutated genes in sex cells?

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