How far did intellectual and religious ideas change and develop an with what effects during Henry VII's reign?

Why was the church so powerful in 1485?
Included a huge number of people, powers stemmed from people's beliefs and fears, had their own legal system, powerful ally if his claim to the throne was challenged - obedience to the will of the king could be taught
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How much land did the church own?
1/3 of the land in England - considerable wealth
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How did the church's powers stem from people's beliefs and fears?
People needed certainties and the church provided this-Church walls had contrasting and lurid pics of heaven and hell-illiterate peasants could easily understand where they wanted to go, Church provided explanation for events which effected people
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How many monks and nuns were there in the church in 1485?
10,000 monks and nuns
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How many ordained priests were there in the church in 1485?
35,0000 ordained priests
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The hierarchy of the Catholic church
The papacy - Secular Clergy and Roman Curia: Cardinals, Archbishops, Bishops, Parish Priests - The regular clergy: Enclosed monastic orders, Open monastic orders
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The catholic church's influence in English politics
Gov ministers were members of upper clergy - Bishop morton, Bishops and abbots sat in the HoL as churchmen were often best educated
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Church in England
Catholic Church - Stretched across Europe and ruled by the Pope in Italy
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Problems with an overpowerful church
Power encouraged corruption
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The church's legal system
Clergy tried in Church courts, Papacy was a court of law - Papal curia - Court of appeal
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What was the role of the Church in the community?
Sense of identity and collective purpose,Bounded villagers into one community,People went to church regularly and made donations, Most common and easily identifiable building in England
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When Henry VII came to the throne, how was support for the church?
Extensive-no doubt people supported the church - Nearly 2/3 of English parish churches were built or rebuilt during the 15th century
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Evidence of donations made to the church
In Lincolnshire £305 was raised to build a parish church
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Liturgy
People went to church regularly and almost all went to celebrate Holy days
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Why was access to the Bible limited?
Was in Latin so only priests and others who could read the language had access
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Priesthood
Status set them apart - Appearance at church - wore vestments to conduct services, Celibacy - Not allowed to marry or have sex
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The 7 essential sacraments
Unction, Marriage, Confirmation, Holy orders, Baptism, The Eucharist, Confession
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Unction
One of the 7 essential sacraments - Anointing of the sick
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Confirmation
One of the 7 essential sacraments - Confirming the acceptance of God's spirit in their hearts
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Holy orders
One of the 7 essential sacraments - Granting of status of Priest
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The Eucharist
One of the 7 essential sacraments - Commemorate the Last Supper
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How did priests explain Christian beliefs in England when there was high illiteracy?
Used paintings and statues - beliefs focused more on the god of nature and the fear of going to hell
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What did people believe with regard to religion in 1485?
Teachings and doctrines of Rome-Pope was head of church-Clergy held a special place in society-To avoid hell people should attend church regularly,believe in the sacraments and show their faith to God
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Why did the clergy hold a special authority?
They were the only ones who could conduct key ceremonies in the community - such as weddings and funerals - and were the only people who could interpret the Latin Bible
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Who was the head of Church in England in 1485?
The Pope -Decided on all matters: religious and political, and had supreme authority over all spiritual matters
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When was the printing press first used in England and where was it brought from?
First used in 1476 - Edward IV encouraged English books and translation of Latin or French to English - printing press was brought from Germany
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The impact of the printing press
Spread Humanist ideas, Standardised English, The availability of books led to more gentry and noble classes learning to read
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Evidence that Henry VII supported the idea of printing
Created the post of the king's printer in 1504
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Evidence against the fact that the printing press spread Humanist ideas
The majority of books printed were stories - Henry VII and much of the nobility preferred these types of books
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How did the printing press help to standardise English?
There were 5 different regional dialects across England before the printing press, the printing press helped to smooth regional variations and improved the literacy rate
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What was the impact of the printing press on the nobility and gentry?
Availability of books led to more gentry and noble classes learning to read - led to change - more and more book were published - Reduced illiteracy rate - however books were expensive so not all (Commoners) could afford and print runs were small
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Humanism
Renaissance movement which began in Italy and swept through Europe - A positive movement that put emphasis on the power and potential of mankind and that improvement was possible through learning and study
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Corruption in the church
Clergy were absent from their parishes yet claiming stipend, Pluralists claimed the stipends from several parishes, Some clergy were ignorant and could not even recite the Lord's prayer, Some had wives/mistresses
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How were humanists involved in the religious debate?
Poor quality of Parish priests-improve education-over 100 endowed schools set up 15th century, Attack church practices-selling of indulgences and Veneration of Saints, Exploitation of ppls fear led them away from God and lined pocket of upper clergy
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Impact of Humanism
Only most educated understood and had access - most people followed medieval attitude and attended pilgrimage & believed in miracles and Saints
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Key Humanists
Erasmus, John Skelton, John Colet, Thomas More
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Key Humanists - Erasmus
Dutch scholar who visited England in 1499-based at Oxford and Cambridge, Enormous influence in Europe, Challenged monks who did not live godly lives and attacked the abuses of the Church
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Key Humanists - John Skelton
Poet and linguist who was a tutor to future Henry VIII
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Key Humanists - John Colet
Dean of St Paul's cathedral, Founder of St Paul's school, Travelled to Italy - denounced the abuses of the church and the corruption of the clergy
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Key Humanists - Thomas More
Scholar who wrote utopia and Chancellor to future Henry VIII
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

1/3 of the land in England - considerable wealth

Back

How much land did the church own?

Card 3

Front

People needed certainties and the church provided this-Church walls had contrasting and lurid pics of heaven and hell-illiterate peasants could easily understand where they wanted to go, Church provided explanation for events which effected people

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

10,000 monks and nuns

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

35,0000 ordained priests

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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