Agricultural Technique & Capital Investment

What was the market garden?
A specialist producers of fruit and vegetables: in the 17th century one garden could serve thousands of people. Transport infrastructure helped this.
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What happened in the 1640s?
Agricultural production in Britain exceeded that of all other European countries except Holland.
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What was the effect of increased levels of literacy in the 1600s?
More yeomen and husband men could write books about agricultural techniques.
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What was an advantage of enclosure?
More fields were available for rotation. 9 million acres were used for arable farming in 1700, with 1.8 million left fallow.
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What was the benefit of efficient crop rotation?
New crops like potatoes could be introduced and rotated.
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Who was Samuel Hartlib?
A German writer who promoted the use of nitrogen-rich crops like clover and cabbage (fertilised soil for the following year).
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How did geography impact specialised farming?
Warmer, drier South East was more suited to arable farming and the North and West of England was more suited to pastoral.
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Why were the yeomanry able to experiment with new crops?
They owned large amounts of land and so were only slightly affected by bad harvests.
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What did husbandmen do?
Usually they owned farms of 40 acres or less and dedicated them to one product that suited the local economy.
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What was the Settlement Act of 1662?
Made it easier for landowners to hire labourers from other parishes and let them go when the harvest ended so they didn't have to contribute to the Poor Rates.
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How many families of labourers were there in 1688?
364,000, which means over 1 million people must have been employed this way.
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Who invested in agriculture?
The gentry and the aristocracy; they bought land from neighbouring farms, enclosed it and invested in new crops. This became more profitable in 1650 after a population decrease.
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How did capital investment improve production?
Landowners delegated work to their tenants, who had to specialise their products to pay rent, which required investment in new techniques from landowners.
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What was the shipment of grain for London like in 1661?
1,150,000 quarters, as opposed to 500,000 in 1605.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happened in the 1640s?

Back

Agricultural production in Britain exceeded that of all other European countries except Holland.

Card 3

Front

What was the effect of increased levels of literacy in the 1600s?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was an advantage of enclosure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the benefit of efficient crop rotation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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