How did English society and economy change and with what effects during Henry VII's reign

Structure of hierarchy
Didn't change - Social status dominated society - 'Great chain of Being' - Strict hierarchy of ranks
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King relied on their support-armies for wars,maintain law and order, Few in number, more nobles were executed, Owned large areas of land
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How many Earls did Henry create during his reign and what was the consequences of this?
Created only 3 Earls - Honour was very special - Created loyalty and support among nobility
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How many nobility was their during the reign of Henry VII?
Just over 50 - fell by a quarter
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Nobles that were executed
Baron Dacre, Countess of Sailsbury, Duke of Buckingham
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The right of succession belonging to the firstborn child, especially the feudal rule by which the whole real estate of an intestate passed to the eldest son - strict inheritance rules
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Consequences of the nobility owning large areas of land
Power and influence in the localities - could challenge kings power, Extensive households - Duke of Northumberland - 187 household members 1503-04
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Needed to summon Parliament to pass laws, Expected to consult with advisers-Henry had loyal nobles, Needed support of nobles,In theory controlled the whole country-Some areas were semi-independent-control of leading nobles + church from York/Durham
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Increased during the reign of Henry VII, they were keen to have their sons trained in law in order to secure advancement in local government
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Very powerful - control the people by preaching obedience - important ally of the king
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Majority of population, worked for landowners, often suffered badly-changes-Agriculture+Enclosures+Rise in prices
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Why could it be argued that England was more unified than countries in Europe?
There was a accepted language and common law
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Why were landowners still relied upon?
To carry out the role of Sheriff and JPs - the amount of JPs increased under Henry VII
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Extraordinary Revenue
Bonds and recognisances, Clerical taxes, Feudal dues, Loans and benevolences, Parliamentary taxes
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Extraordinary Revenue - Bonds and recognisances
Demanded from those with suspect loyalty - guaranteed good behaviour
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Extraordinary Revenue - Clerical taxes
Appoint leading churchmen by selling offices
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Extraordinary Revenue -Feudal dues
Gifts for special occasions - Paid for by the nobility - £30,000 from Parliament for knighthood of dead Prince Arthur
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Extraordinary Revenue - Loans and benevolences
1491 £48,000 for Brittany war - Managed by the Council learned in Law and the Royal council
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Extraordinary Revenue -Parliamentary taxes
Taxes on the value of move able property - unpopular - avoided
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Ordinary Revenue
Custom duties, Feudal dues, Legal dues, Crown lands
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Ordinary Revenue - Custom duties
Sale of wool wine and leather, Rose from £33,000 per year to £40,000, updated book of rates twice, certificates for coastal trade
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Ordinary Revenue - Feudal dues
Demand money from the principle that the king was the sole owner of all land, £350 in 1487 to £6,000 in 1507
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Ordinary Revenue - Legal dues
Money from fines from people subject to the king's court
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Ordinary Revenue - Crown lands
Inherited lands, less inclined to grant lands, increased by attainders and escheats-reversion - 1486 Act of Resumption
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Surveyor of the Kings wards
Cases of money owed to him through wardships
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King's interest in economic matters
Avoided aggressive foreign policy, more concerned with coinage and trade, Privy Chamber more efficient than exchequer used at beginning, little evidence for involvement in industry, Exploited legal rights to claim payments from nobles
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Court of Audit
Managed government spending
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How many statues did Parliament pass that were concerned with economic matters and why?
50 Statues - driven by interest groups such as Merchants of the City of London
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Evidence that the King got involved in economic matters regarding industry
1496-Sponsored the building of a blast furnace in Newsbridge, 1509-Cast iron guns made in England for the first time
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Internal trade
90-95% of trade, road networks were extensive - however horses were inefficient as they were slow and couldn't carry a lot - rivers and coasts also used
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London in 1485
Largest city - overcrowded and cramped - Hundreds of market towns - Merchant hub
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Wool farming
Less labour intensive - caused rural depopulation - profits from wool farming encouraged farmers to enclose lands and join farms together
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When did Henry push through laws to combat depopulation and were they effective?
1488-9 and they weren't effective
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Decline in traditional open field farming-Changes in harvest has different impacts on population, Most important time of the year
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Good harvest
1485, 1504-09 harvest average to good - meant an abundance of food for everyone
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Harvest between 1486-9
Was average
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Harvest during the 1990s
5/10 harvests were plentiful with only one being poor
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Poor harvest
Starvation and disease
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In regards to religion, what did people believe in 1485?
Teachings and doctrines of Catholic church - Pope was head of Church - The 7 essential sacraments - To avoid hell people should attend church regularly,believe in sacraments and show faith to God - Clergy held a special place in society
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Why did the Clergy hold a special place in society?
Conducted key ceremonies in the community, people went to church regularly, Interpreted the Latin bible, Status set them apart-Appearance at church services (Vestments), not allowed to have sex or marry
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How many monks and nuns were there in the Catholic church of England 1485?
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How many ordained priests were there in the Catholic church of England 1485?
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How many English parish churches were build or rebuilt in the 15th century?
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Evidence that the Church gave a sense of community and collective purpose to all
Donations and gifts were common - partly motivated by the fear of going to hell - Bounded villagers together in one community
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Dutch Humanist scholar who visited England in 1499 - Attacked the abuses of the Catholic church - Challenged monks who did not live godly lives - enormous influence in Europe
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Renaissance idea that began to emerge-Positive movement emphasised power and potential of mankind and that improvement was possible through learning and studying, involved in religious debate
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How were humanists involved in religious debate?
Wanted to improve the quality of education-100 endowed schools set up in 15th century-Attacked church's exploitation of practices
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Evidence of church's exploitation of practices that motivated humanist ideas
Selling of indulgences, Venerations of Saints, Led souls away from God, Lacked in training and discipline, Also lined the pockets of the higher clergy
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Impact of Humanism
Most people followed traditional medieval attitude-attended pilgrimages and believed in saints/miracles, Only most educated understood and had access
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Land was fenced-off and common rights over land were abolished-Deprived villagers of land for their animals,cutting timber, fishing and hunting
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What were the two anti-enclosure laws introduced in 1489?
First law -Isle of Wight-Belief that enclosures causing depopulation, Second law-Forbade any destruction of a house with at least 20 acres of land-Belief that enclosures caused breakdown of law/order - difficult to enforce
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What did enclosures allow?
Selective breeding of animals, Effort at growing crops, The start of a more scientific move in agriculture
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Enclosures during Henry VII's reign
Developed during reign but never as widespread as was first thought
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Why were enclosures never as widespread as first thought?
Most common in the Midlands/Norfolk but only 3% of land there was ever enclosed - number of farmers evicted prob exaggerated,turned to pasture farming as could not get labour,no of ppl actually employed on land was not large by 1485-Worse before
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Consequences of enclosures on farmers
Those who could not prove the legal ownership of land faced eviction-Some land had been enclosed illegally, but that was comparatively small to legal enclosing were the benefits offset the effects of illegal enclosing
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What did England import a lot of and where from?
France-Wood and Wine, Spain - Iron
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Consequences of England exporting a lot
Economy dependent on exports/overseas trade - vulnerable to vagaries of the time - war/plague, Woollen cloth -highly valuable commodity - Fragile one to base a nations wealth
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Textile production
Developed but on a small-scale - Stockings in lake district, Linen in Lancashire
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What were the most important areas for overseas trade?
Yorkshire, East Anglia and the West Country
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What did England export?
Woollen cloth, lead and tin and coal -small scale - what wasn't needed was exported, 90% of exports were woollen cloth
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Why was England's cloth high in demand and what were the effects of this?
Best in Europe, Cloth exports doubled and made up 90% of England's exports, England were the dominant woollen cloth trader in Europe - applied high duties to exploit demand
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Consequences of sheep rearing becoming more profitable
Move from arable farming to pasture - wealthy wool merchants financed the whole operation - work in woollen industry was seasonal - agricultural workers tended to work in both
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Exports of raw wool during Henry's reign
Fell by 50% - replaced by finish article
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Engrossing of farms
Several farms joined together - led to eviction - was more profitable for landowners - people confused this with enclosing
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State of the economy in 1485
Slowly recovering-War of Roses,Black death resulted in chronic population decline which hit agriculture and economy hard, Based on agriculture and common labourers -open field farming, Overcrowding, Heavy taxes
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What was the population of England in 1485?
About 3 million - 90% lived in rural areas
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King relied on their support-armies for wars,maintain law and order, Few in number, more nobles were executed, Owned large areas of land

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How many Earls did Henry create during his reign and what was the consequences of this?


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How many nobility was their during the reign of Henry VII?


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Nobles that were executed


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