How are glaciated landscapes used and managed today?

What is the difference between a glacial and a glaciated environment?
A glacial environment is one with active layers and ice sheets, wheras a glaciated area is one where glaciation is no longer occuring.
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Suggest a definition of wilderness.
An area in its natural state untouched by people and their economic activities
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Suggest a definition of wilderness continuum.
The gradation from areas totally untouched by humans through areas that show increasing amounts of human modification. In general terms, the continuum runs from glacial to glaciated landscapes.
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Outline the range of attitudes that exist towards active glacial landscapes.
They range from preservation to exploitation. Attitudes are likely to be highly polarised. There is little scope for compromise and middle-ground attitudes.
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Examine the potential economic value of glaciated areas.
Used for: farming, mining and quarrying, HEP, and tourism.
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Name two natural hazards that occur in glaciated areas.
Avalanches, lahars, glacial outburst floods.
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Name three human threats to glaciated areas.
Polar tourism, HEP, mineral exploitation and urbanisation.
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Identify human activities that degrade the landscape and ecosystems.
Trampling on a range of sensitive and commonly occuring ecosystems, damage by tourism, litter, waste and fuel spills, removal of historic artefacts, loss of cultural heritage, forestry, farming and transport.
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Identify players whose actions are reducing the resilience of glaciated upland landscapes.
All those involved in some way or another in the exploitation of resources. They range from tourists, residents and service providers to farmers, foresters, miners and fishermen.
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Outline two impacts that global warming is having on glacier systems.
It is having a major impact on mass balances with accumulation exceeded by ablation, so glacier advance is either reduced or reversed.
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Who are the players indirectly altering the natural systems of glacial and glaciated landscapes?
Tourist operators through the tourists they send to these landscapes, and consumers (*in other parts of the world) of local resources such as oil, timber, fish, those who burn fossil fuels etc.
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Identify the major stakeholders in glacial areas.
Local indigenous people, tourism operators, governments - national to local, conservation organisations.
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Explain Antarctica's unique system of international governance.
The Antarctic Treaty of 1959 established Antarctica as a continent of peace and science. The only settlements allowed on the continent are the research stations.
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Give examples of actions at a national level aimed at protecting glacial and glaciated landscapes.
The creation of national parks in the UK and many other countries which protect glacial and glaciated areas as well as other landscapes. Other forms of conservation include wildlife refuges and sites of special scientific interest.
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Give some examples of the ways in which climate warming is challenging glacial environments.
Thinning and retraction of ice cover, rising sea levels, threats to wildlife, changes in oceanic circulation and disruption of traditional ways of life of indigenous people.
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Explain why global warming is creating an uncertain future in glacial areas.
Because no one knows how long the current global warming will persist and by how much global temperatures will rise. They are unable to gauge what if anything, can be done.
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Suggest what might be done by way of mitigation and adaptation.
Not a lot can be done in glacial areas themselves since the human contributions to global warming have their resources in other parts of the world.
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Card 2

Front

Suggest a definition of wilderness.

Back

An area in its natural state untouched by people and their economic activities

Card 3

Front

Suggest a definition of wilderness continuum.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Outline the range of attitudes that exist towards active glacial landscapes.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Examine the potential economic value of glaciated areas.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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