How and why language change happens

  • Created by: Annagc
  • Created on: 16-04-19 15:25
What social factors influenced language change?
The strict feudal system, the industrial revolution, emergence of a new middle class, 1870 Ekementary Act - compulsory education for age 5-12
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Which external factors influenced language change?
Two world wars, post war affluence, rise in travel, rise in technology
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How did the emergence of a teenage culture lead to language change?
This social group was open to change and linguistic creativity
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How has increased politness changed language?
The loss of thou and thee is a marker of politeness, we sometimes avoid you to avoid causing offence, increased use of euphamism and political correctness
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How has informalisation changed language?
Norman Fairclough - changing boundaries between public and private discourse has lead to more colloquial language use
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How has the influence of technology changed language?
Exposed to more regional, national and international dialects, increased use of acronyms, initialisms etc,
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What is assimilation?
sounds that are similar move towards each other to make pronunciation easier e.g. 'hambag'
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What is omission?
Some sounds are left out when speaing quickly, makes language more fluent e.g. t is omitted in whistle
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What is the purpose of neatening?
To smooth out anomalies or inconsistencies
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Examples of neatening/regulisation?
Most plurals end with -s but shoes used to be shooen, older forms of past tense verbs are being replaced e.g. snuck to sneaked, new verbs have regularised endings e.g. googled
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What is Charles Hockett's theory of why language changes?
Errors occur and we tend to pass these on to other users e.g. pwned in the gaming community
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What is Jean Aitchison's theory of how language changes?
Change starts in a small way affecting a few words at first, fluctuation between new and old word, gradually the new forms replace the old, it then spreads quickly in a short time span, the change the slows and levels out
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What is substratum theory?
When speakers learn a new language they will learn it imperfectly and pass these imperfections onto future generations
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Why has English established itself as a global language?
The rise of technology, the WWW is largely English, it has been adopted for science, business and air traffic control, migration and early settlement in America and Australia, colonial expansion took it to India etc
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What is L1 English?
English spoken as a first language
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What is L2 English?
English used as a second language
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What does Strevens world map of English show?
The dominance of English across the world, the separation of British English and American English
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What is Kachru's 'three circles' model comprised of?
Inner circle english as an L1, Outer cirlce english as an L2, Expanding circle english as a lingua franca
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Why has Kachru's model been criticised?
It doesn't adress the diversity of english within the circles, doesn't account for the grey area between the circles, inner and outer also place value judgements about better usage
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Features of Canadian English (inner circle)
British - our, -re word endings, American - ize endings, American phonology but with distinctive vowel sound, American lexis e.g. diaper with some specific canadian words e.g. washroom, use of eh? as a tag question
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Features of Indian English (outer circle)
Phonologically it is syllable times rather than stress timed, compound words are commmon, progressive aspect is used with stative verbs, no? used as a tag question
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What does English as a lingua franca refer to ?
English being used as a common language among speakers who come from different linguistic backgrounds, this refers mostly to languages in the expanding circle
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What did Jennifer Jenkins say are five key characteristics of ELF?
Used by speakers of different language so they can communicate, it is an alternative to EFL not a replacement, may include local varieties of english, code switching may be useful in ELF, language of proficient ELF users tends to be for description
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Foundation stage of Schneider's Dynamic model
English is brought to a new territory leading to emerging bilingualism
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Exonormative stabilisation stage of Schneider's Dynamic model
An 'elite' bilingualism spreads, led by the politically dominant country, is is established as the language of law, administration and education
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Nativisation stage of Schneider's Dynamic model
Bilingual speakers forge a new variety of English as ties with settlers country of origin weaken
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Endonormative stabilisation stage of Schneider's Dynamic model
After independence and inspired by the need for 'nation building' a new linguistic norm is established and codified
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Differentiation stage of Schneider's Dynamic model
Group specific varieties emerge leadin to internal diversity
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What is Robert Phillipson's view of English as a global language?
It disadvantages other languages, causing them to lose prestige or to die out
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Which external factors influenced language change?

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Two world wars, post war affluence, rise in travel, rise in technology

Card 3

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How did the emergence of a teenage culture lead to language change?

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Card 4

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How has increased politness changed language?

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Card 5

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How has informalisation changed language?

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