Hormones, blood glucose + diabetes

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  • Created by: LZ95
  • Created on: 15-04-14 17:25
What is the second messenger model?
Hormone binds to receptors of target cells, thereby producing an enzyme inside the cell which results in the production of a chemical that acts as the second messenger. This chemical produces the required response by a series of chemical changes
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What enzymes are produced by the pancreas?
Protease, amylase + lipase
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What hormones are produced by the pancreas?
Insulin + glucagon
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Which two types of cells are referred to as the 'islets of Langerhans'?
Alpha cells and beta cells
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What are the characteristics of alpha cells?
They are large and produce glucagon
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What are the characteristics of beta cells?
They are smaller and produce insulin
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What happens if blood glucose concentration is too low?
Cells are deprived of energy and die
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What happens if blood glucose concentration is too high?
Water potential is lowered in the blood causing osmotic problems that could lead to dehydration
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Name 3 sources from which glucose comes from
Diet, glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis
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What is glycogenolysis?
The breakdown of glycogen which is stored in the liver and muscle cells.
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What happens during glycogenesis?
Excess glucose from diet is converted into glycogen.
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What is gluconeogenesis?
Production of new glucose e.g. liver can make glucose from glycerol and amino acids
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Which 3 hormones operate to maintain a constant blood glucose level?
Insulin, glucagon + adrenaline
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What is the response of beta cells when they detect a rise in blood glucose level?
They secrete insulin directly into the blood plasma
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What happens when insulin binds to a glycoprotein receptor?
Tertiary structure of glucose transport protein changes, changing its shape to open up to allow more glucose to diffuse into the cell. Also, enzymes are activated to convert glucose to glycogen + fat.
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Name 3 ways in which blood glucose level is lowered
Increasing rate of absorption of glucose into cells, increasing rate of conversion of glucose to fat, increasing the respiratory rate of cells so they use up more glucose
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What is the response of alpha cells when they detect a fall in blood glucose level?
They secrete glucagon directly into the blood plasma
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Which is the only type of cell which has receptors complementary to glucagon?
Liver cells
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What is the response of the liver?
An enzyme is activated which converts glycogen to glucose and gluconeogenesis occurs as well.
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When is adrenaline produced?
At times of excitement or stress
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Name the 2 ways in which adrenaline decreases blood glucose level
It activates an enzyme which causes the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver and inactivates an enzyme that synthesises glycogen from glucose.
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Define diabetes
It is a chronic disease in which a person is unable to metabolise carbohydrate especially glucose.
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Describe type 1 diabetes
The body is unable to produce insulin. This may start during childhood, where an autoimmune response could destroy the Beta cells of the body.
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Describe type 2 diabetes
Glycoprotein receptors on body cells lose their responsiveness to insulin. This happens due to poor diet.
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How is type 1 diabetes controlled?
By the injection of insulin 2-4 times a day with very precise measures. Also, improved diet helps.
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Why can't the insulin be taken in orally?
As it would be digested
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How is type 2 diabetes controlled?
By controlling the amount of carbohydrate intake and matching it to the amount of exercise taken.
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Card 2

Front

What enzymes are produced by the pancreas?

Back

Protease, amylase + lipase

Card 3

Front

What hormones are produced by the pancreas?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Which two types of cells are referred to as the 'islets of Langerhans'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the characteristics of alpha cells?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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