Hormones

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What is a first and second messenger (refer to cAMP)
First messenger: Adrenaline. Binds to receptor stimulating release of adrenyl cyclase. ATP>cAMP= Secondary messenger(causes effect within cell by activating enzyme action)
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What are the functions of the adrenal gland?
Medulla: Manufacture and release adrenaline in response to pain/shock. Cortex: Uses cholesorol to produce steroid hormones- glucocortosoids control carbs and protein metabolism. mineralcortosoids- Na and K control in blood
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What is the role of the pancreas as an endocrine and exocrine gland? Can you describe its histology?
Duct: releases fluid containing amylase, lipase and sodium hydrogencarbonate to neutralise acid from stomach. Islet of langerhans:Contains alpha and Beta cells- control of blood glucose
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How is blood glucose regulated? Too high
Too high: B- cells secrete insulin into blood. Binds to receptors around body inc.hepatocytes and muscle cells. More glucose channels open and glucose enters cels, converted to glycagon(glycogenesis), converted to fats/ used to respire.
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How is insulin secretion controlled?
K+ and Ca2+ channels. K+ channels open so flow out. [Blood glucose] high so glucose moves into cell. Metabolised to produce ATP. ATP closes K+ ion channels. Cell negative as K+ accumulates so Ca2+ channels open Vesicles fuse with mem,insulin released
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What are the differences in causes of type 1 and 2 diabetes melilitus
Type 1: Insulin dependent.Starts in childhood. B- cells attacked by body system can's store excess glucose as glycogen.Type 2: Decline in response to insulin. Obesity, Afro caribbean and diet contribute
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What are the ethics of using stem cells or bacteria to use as a treatment for diabetes mellitus
Lower infection risk, less rejection, cheaper. Con: Animal use
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What are the differences between endocrine and exocrine glands?
Endocrine: From glands to blood. Exocrine: Duct carries secretions to other areas
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What is a hormone?
Molecules which are signals released by the endocrine glands
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How is blood glucose regulated? Too low
a- cells: Glucagon secreted, binds to hepatocytes. Glycogenolysis from glycogen to glucose. Fatty acids in respiration. Gluconeogenesis of glucose from amino acids and fats
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How is heart rate in humans controlled by nerves and hormones?
Heart muscle myogenic.SAN= Pacemaker that generates action potential. Wave of excitation down AVN to ventricles= contraction. Adrenaline affects muscular response of heart and connection to medulla ob. affects frequency of contractions:monitor pH co2
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Treatment for type 1 and 2 diabetes
Type 1: Injections. Type 2: Control of diet
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Card 2

Front

What are the functions of the adrenal gland?

Back

Medulla: Manufacture and release adrenaline in response to pain/shock. Cortex: Uses cholesorol to produce steroid hormones- glucocortosoids control carbs and protein metabolism. mineralcortosoids- Na and K control in blood

Card 3

Front

What is the role of the pancreas as an endocrine and exocrine gland? Can you describe its histology?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How is blood glucose regulated? Too high

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How is insulin secretion controlled?

Back

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