Hormones and Receptors

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Peptide
Hormones made up of amino acids; synthesised through transcription and translation. Water-soluble, use cell-surface receptors and often produced as a larger molecule which is cleaved. Products are stored and released, e.g. in vesicles
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Steroid
Hormones that are synthesised from cholesterol, so are lipophilic. Cannot be stored in the body, as vesicles are also lipophilic. Use intracellular receptors
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Amino acid derivatives
Hormones made up of modified amino acids, e.g. adrenaline, noradrenaline and thyroxine. They are water soluble
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GPCR
A cell surface receptor with an intracellular and extracellular domain as well as 7 transmembrane domains. It is coupled with a G protein. Works by second messenger
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G protein
A heterotrimeric protein - alpha, beta, gamma subunits. After conformational change in GPCR, alpha subunit exchanges GDP for GTP, it then detaches and activates cAMP
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Tyrosine kinase
Enzyme-linked receptors that transfers a phosphate group from ATP to a tyrosine residues in a protein. This phosphorylation induces conformational changes. They act in pairs forming cross-linked dimers. Activity can be intrinsic or recruited
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Epidermal growth factor receptors
A cell-surface receptor with an extracellular hormone binding site, two cysteine rich regions, a transmembrane region and an intrinsic kinase domain which phosphorylates tyrosine residues after dimerisation. GRB and SOS recruited and Ras is GTP bound
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Recruited tyrosine kinase
Receptor tyrosine kinases which don't have a kinase domain within them. Growth hormone or cytokine bind to their dimerised receptor, conformational change, recruits JAK which phosphorylates the receptor, allowing for signal transduction
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Type I
Intracellular receptors that work as homodimers. Ligands bind to nuclear receptors in cytosol which then bind to hormone response elements within DNA in nucleus (translocation). The complex recruits proteins which transcribe DNA into mRNA
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Type II
Intracellular receptors which are heterodimeric. They are already found in nucleus, bound to DNA. After hormone binds, there is removal of co-repressors and recruitment of co-activators
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Hormones that are synthesised from cholesterol, so are lipophilic. Cannot be stored in the body, as vesicles are also lipophilic. Use intracellular receptors

Back

Steroid

Card 3

Front

Hormones made up of modified amino acids, e.g. adrenaline, noradrenaline and thyroxine. They are water soluble

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A cell surface receptor with an intracellular and extracellular domain as well as 7 transmembrane domains. It is coupled with a G protein. Works by second messenger

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A heterotrimeric protein - alpha, beta, gamma subunits. After conformational change in GPCR, alpha subunit exchanges GDP for GTP, it then detaches and activates cAMP

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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