Hormones (4.1.3)

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What are hormones released by?
Endocrine glands.
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What are endocrine glands?
Ductless glands that secrete hormones straight into the blood capillaries.
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What do exocrine glands do?
Secrete substances into a duct which then carries the secretion to another part of the body.
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Name 3 exocrine glands in the body.
Liver- bile. Stomach- hydrochloric acid. Pancreas- digestive enzymes.
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Name 4 endocrine glands in the body.
Pituitary gland- ADH. Thyroid gland- thyroxine. Adrenal glands- adrenaline. Pancreas- insulin and glucagon.
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What are the two types of hormone?
Protein/peptide hormones- adrenaline, insulin, glucagon. Steroid hormones- the sex hormones.
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What are protein hormones?
Hormones that aren't soluble in the phospholipid bilayer, so cannot enter cells.
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What are steroid hormones?
Hormones that can easily pass through cell membranes to have a direct effect on the DNA inside the nucleus.
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How do protein hormones work?
Protein hormone secreted. Hormone circulates in body fluids. Hormone binds to receptor in plasma membrane of target cell. This activates 2nd messenger inside the cell.
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What is the role of adrenaline?
Prepares body for fight or flight. Secreted in response to fear/danger/stress/excitement. It affects many different target cells around the body.
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What is the medulla region of the adrenal gland?
Where the adrenaline is made and released.
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Give 4 specific effects of adrenaline.
Dilation of pupils. Increased rate of conversion of glycogen into glucose, allows increased cell resp. rate. Increased heart rate & stroke volume, leads to increased cardiac output- more O2 & glucose to cells. Relaxes smooth muscles in bronchioles.
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What does the cortex region of each adrenal gland secrete?
Mineralocorticoids- help to control the levels of sodium and potassium ions in the blood. Glucocorticoids- help to control protein and carbohydrate metabolism in the liver.
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What is the cascade effect?
One adrenaline molecule can activate the adenyl cyclase enzyme many times. This then results in many cAMP molecules being made, which in turn activtes many other enzyme molecules.
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Explain how adrenaline works.
Adrenaline in blood attaches to specific receptors on target cells. Receptors are associated with adenyl cyclase on inside of cell membrane. Adrenaline attaches- activates enzyme (changes shape slightly). Enzyme converts ATP - cAMP. Leads to response
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Card 2

Front

What are endocrine glands?

Back

Ductless glands that secrete hormones straight into the blood capillaries.

Card 3

Front

What do exocrine glands do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name 3 exocrine glands in the body.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name 4 endocrine glands in the body.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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