Hormone Structure & Action

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What is chemical bioregulation?
Occurs with secretion from endocrine systems, nervous systems and immune system.
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What are secretions?
Chemical messengers that allow communication between body cells.
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What are hormones?
Secreted by cells into the blood via the endocrine system.
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What are protein hormones?
Short strings of amino acids, very short chains are called peptide hormones.
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What are protein hormones used for?
Social bonding (oxytocin), metabolism (insulin and glucagon), the oestrus cycle (LH and FSH).
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What are amine hormones?
A single modified amino acid, smaller and simpler than protein hormones.
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What are amine hormones used for?
Metabolism and body functioning (epinephrine and norepinephrine).
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What are some properties of both protein and amine hormones (5)?
Act on specific receptors outside cells, rapid, can have prolonged effect, sensitivity can be altered by changing amount of receptors on cell, stored in vesicles and secreted on demand.
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What is the process of action of protein/ amine hormones?
Hormone binds to receptor outside cell ---> Receptor shape alters ---> Reaction activates secondary messenger ---> Either alters cell function or has multiple biological effects.
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What are steroid hormones?
Derived from cholesterol, made of 4 interconnected carbon rings, soluble in lipids.
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What are steroid hormones used for?
As sex hormones (oestrogen and testosterone) and stress hormones (glucocorticoids).
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What are some prorpeties of steroid hormones (5)?
Act on specific receptors inside cells, slow, have long-lasting effects via transcripting gene elements, sensitivity altered by presence/ absence of co-factors, cannot be stored so synthesized on demand.
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What is the process of action of steroid hormones?
Passive diffusion into cell ---> Binds to specific steroid receptor ---> Receptor enters nucleus ---> Receptor binds to DNA, altering production of gene products.
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What is the endocrine subdivision of the endocrine system?
Endocrine glands --hormones--> Target organs ---> Effect!
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What is the neuroendocrine subdivision of the endocrine system?
Hypothalamus --releasing hormones--> Pituitary --tropic hormones--> Endocrine glands --hormones--> Target organs ---> Effect!
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Why might the location of an hormone production not be the same as the location of effect?
Once hormones are in the blood, they circulate throughout the body.
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What is an example of a short-term effect of hormones?
The milk let down reflex- Nerve impulses stimulate hypothalamus, mother hears crying and mammary glands sense suckling. Mammary glands release milk. Once the baby stops suckling/ crying, oxytocin production stops.
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What is an example of a long-term effect of hormones?
Growth hormone- Hypothalamus releases somatocrinin which stimulates the anterior pituitary. This releases a growth hormone, influencing bone growth.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are secretions?

Back

Chemical messengers that allow communication between body cells.

Card 3

Front

What are hormones?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are protein hormones?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are protein hormones used for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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