Hormonal Coordination.

HideShow resource information
What is the endocrine system and what is ti made up of? (2.)
It is made up of glands tat secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream.
1 of 112
Where does the blood carry hormones to?
The target organ/effector.
2 of 112
What are on the cell membranes of the effector organ?
Receptors.
3 of 112
What doe the receptors do to trigger a response?
Pick up the hormone molecules.
4 of 112
What two hormones act very quickly?
Insulin and adrenaline.
5 of 112
What two types of hormones ave long term effects and take a long time to act?
Sex hormones and growth hormones.
6 of 112
Why do endocrine glands secrete hormones? (2.)
As they provide chemical coordination and control for the body.
7 of 112
What is the master gland in the brain?
The pituitary gland.
8 of 112
What can SOME hormones from the pituitary gland do?
Traget certain endocrine glands.
9 of 112
What does FSH do? (2.)
Stimulates the ovaries to secrete oestrogen.
10 of 112
What is the female sex hormone?
Oestrogen.
11 of 112
What does TSH do? (2.)
Stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroxine.
12 of 112
Name two hormone that have a direct effect on the body.
ADH and growth hormones.
13 of 112
What does ADH do?
It affects the amount of urine produced by the kidney.
14 of 112
Name the six main endocrine glands in the human body.
Pituitary gland, the thyroid gland, the adrenal gland, the pancreas, the ovaries and the testes.
15 of 112
What doe the pancreas do?
It monitors and controls the levels of glucose in the blood.
16 of 112
What do receptors in the pancreas do?
Detect the level of glucose in the blood.
17 of 112
What happens when there is too much glucose in the blood?
The pancreas releases insulin.
18 of 112
What doe insulin cause?
It causes glucose to move from the blood into the cells.
19 of 112
In what two body things is excess glucose converted into glycogen for storage?
In the liver and in organs.
20 of 112
What happens when the glycogen storage is full in the liver and muscles?
The glucose is stored as lipids.
21 of 112
What can lipids eventually do?
Make a person obese.
22 of 112
What does insulin cause?
Blood glucose levels to fall.
23 of 112
Wha does the pancreas realise when glucose blood levels get too low?
It releases glucagon.
24 of 112
What does glucagon cause? What happens to the product of this?
It causes the glycogen in the liver to change back into glucose. This is released back into the blood.
25 of 112
What does glucagon interact with, what does this cause to control blood glucose levels?
It interacts with insulin in a negative feedback cycle.
26 of 112
What may happen when the pancreas produces too little or too much insulin? What condition does this cause?
The glucose blood levels can become to high or too low. This causes type 1 diabetes.
27 of 112
What is type 2 diabetes caused by?
By the body not responding to its own insulin.
28 of 112
What is the most significant factor in the root of type 2 diabetes?
Obesity.
29 of 112
How is type 1 diabetes often treated?
By human insulin.
30 of 112
What is treating insulin made by?
Genetically engineered bacteria.
31 of 112
What does a person with type 1 diabetes have to do every day?
Inject themselves with insulin before every meal.
32 of 112
What do active diabetics have to do, to keep themselves safe?
Match and monitor their insulin injections with their diet and exercise.
33 of 112
What do SOME diabetics use to inject their insulin?
A pump.
34 of 112
What do diabetics with pumps have to do?
Adjust the pump, to how much insulin they require.
35 of 112
Name the five newer methods of treating/curing type 1 diabetes.
Pancreas transplants, transplanting pancreatic cells, using embryonic stem cells to produce insulin producing cells, using adult stem cells from adult diabetics and genetically engineering pancreas cell to make them work properly.
36 of 112
Name the two MAIN treatments for type 2 diabetes.
Eating a balanced diet and exercising.
37 of 112
What should type 2 diabetics reduce in their diets?
The amount of carbohydrates they eat.
38 of 112
Give the three effects of the drugs prescribed for type 2 diabetics that have tried dieting and exercising and it has not worked.
They help the insulin to work better, they help the pancreas to make more insulin or can help reduce amount of glucose absorbed from the gut.
39 of 112
What do negative feedback systems work to do?
To maintain a steady state.
40 of 112
Complete the sentence: when a factor in the internal environment increases....
Changes take place to reduce it and restore the original level.
41 of 112
Complete the sentence: if a factor in the internal environment decreases...
Changes take place to increase it and restore the original level.
42 of 112
Whatever the initial change is, what will the negative feedback do?
It will cause the opposite.
43 of 112
Name four hormones involved in negative feedback.
Insulin, glucagon, MOST female sex hormones and thyroxine.
44 of 112
Where is thyroxine made and where is this?
The thyroid gland in the neck.
45 of 112
What things does thyroxine control?
The basal metabolic rate, how much oxygen is used by different tissues and how the brain of child develops.
46 of 112
What is the basal metabolic rate?
The rate that a substance is built up or broken down by chemical reactions in the body.
47 of 112
What is thyroxine important for?
Growth and development.
48 of 112
Why do the levels of thyroxine in adults remain stable? What hormone does this involve?
As they have negtive feedabck control. This involves TSH.
49 of 112
What gland produced TSH?
The pituitary gland.
50 of 112
What detects the falling levels of thyroxine in the blood?
Sensors in the brain.
51 of 112
What does a low level of thyroxine cause to be released and from what gland?
TSH from the pituitary gland.
52 of 112
What does TSH stimulate?
The amount of thyroxine produced by the thyroid gland.
53 of 112
What negative feedback process involves thyroxine and TSH? (2.)
When a rising level of thyroxine is detected by the brain, the level of TSH inthe blood falls.
54 of 112
Where is adrenaline produced? Where is this?
By the adrenal glands above the kidneys.
55 of 112
Why is adrenaline named the fight or flight hormone? (3.)
As it is produced when a person is stressed, frightened or agnry.
56 of 112
What is the procution of adrenaline NOT controlled by?
By negative feedback.
57 of 112
What five things does adrenaline cause when released?
Breathing rate and geart rate to increase, stored glycogen in the liver to be converted into glucose for respiration, pupils to dilate to let more light in, mental awareness to increase and an increase in the flow of blood with + oxygen in the limbs.
58 of 112
What primary sexual charecteristics are babies born with? (2.)
Ovaries in girls and and testes in boys.
59 of 112
What do the ovaries and testes produce during puberty? What do these trigger?
Sex hormones. These trigger the development of the secondary sexual charecteristics.
60 of 112
Whst is the main sex hormone produced by the ovaries?
Oestrogen.
61 of 112
What ten secondary sexual charecteristics happen due to the release of oestrogen?
Growth spurt, the growth of underarm and pubic hair, breasts develop, the external genitals grow, genital skin darkens, fat is deposited on the hips buttocks and thighs, the brain changes and matures, mature ova start to form monthly in the ovaries,
62 of 112
Continued...
The uterus gorws and becomes more active and menustration begins.
63 of 112
What happens monthly as a part of the mentrual cycle?
An eggg begins to mature in the ovaries.
64 of 112
What happens to the uterus lining during menustration and for what?
It thickens resdy for prganancy.
65 of 112
What happens every 28 days in the mesutration cycle? What is the name givne to this process?
A mature egg is relased from the ovary. This is ovulation.
66 of 112
What happens when the egg is not fertilsied? How many days later does this happen?
The lining of the uterus and the egg are ahed arund 14 days later.
67 of 112
What does FSH cause?
The eggs in the ovary to mature.
68 of 112
What is the folicle?
It is a tissue of cells surrounding the maturing egg.
69 of 112
What does LH do?
It stimulates the release of the egg at ovulation.
70 of 112
What do oestrogen and progesterone do?
They stimulate the build up and maintainance of the uterus lining.
71 of 112
What is the main male reporductive hormone and where is it made?
Testosterone in the testes.
72 of 112
List the nine male secondary sexual characteristics.
A growth spurt, the growth of pubic hair underarm hair and facial hair, the larynx grows and the voice breaks, the external genitalia grows, the genital skins grows darker, the testes grow and become more active, the testes produce sperm throughout..
73 of 112
Continued...
... life, the shoulders and chest broaden as muscles develop and the brain matures.
74 of 112
Where is FSH secreted from?
In the pituitary gland.
75 of 112
What does FSH do?
Makes eggs mature in their follicles in the ovaries.
76 of 112
What OTHER hormone does FSH stimulate the production of?
Oestrogen.
77 of 112
Where is oestrogen secreted and made from?
The ovaries.
78 of 112
What does oestrogen do?
It stimulates the lining of the uterus to grow again after menstruation.
79 of 112
What does oestrogen inhibit the further production of?
FSH.
80 of 112
What does oestrogen stimulate the release of when its levels are high?
LH.
81 of 112
What is LH secreted from?
The pituitary gland.
82 of 112
What does LH do?
It stimulates the release of a mature egg from the ovary.
83 of 112
What happens to the levels of LH once ovulation has taken place?
They fall.
84 of 112
What s progesterone secreted by?
The empty egg follicle in the ovary after ovulation.
85 of 112
What does progesterone help to maintain if an egg is fertilised?
Pregnancy.
86 of 112
What two hormones does progesterone inhibit?
LH and FSH.
87 of 112
What does progesterone do and why? When does it do this?
It maintains the lining of the uterus in the second half of the cycle, so that it is ready to receive a developing embryo if the egg is fertilised.
88 of 112
What happens when LH levels peak? When do they do this?
Ovulation occurs in the middle of the cycle.
89 of 112
What are FSH and LH inhibited by? Why does this happen?
High levels of oestrogen and progesterone: this keeps the uterus ready for pregnancy.
90 of 112
What happens if the egg does not fertilise? (2.)
The levels of each hormone then fall. The lining of the uterus is then shed.
91 of 112
What happens to FSH when the egg is not fertilised? What does this stimulate?
It is no longer inhibited, meaning its levels then rise. This stimulates the ovaries to produce oestrogen again.
92 of 112
What is contraception? (There are two possible answers.)
Stopping the egg and the sperm from meeting or preventing a fertilised egg from implanting in the uterus.
93 of 112
What do oral contraceptives contain and why? (2.)
Hormones to inhibit FSH production, to stop the egg from maturing.
94 of 112
What does the mixed pill contain? (2.)
Low doses of oestrogen and SOME progesterone.
95 of 112
What do SOME pills only contain?
Progesterone.
96 of 112
What three things do the pill hormones do?
They inhibit FSH production so that no eggs are released, they stop the uterus lining from developing to stop egg implantation and they make mucus in the cervix thick to stop sperm form entering into the uterus.
97 of 112
Name the five MAIN causes of female infertility.
A lack of female hormones, damage to the oviducts, obesity, eating disorders and a higher age.
98 of 112
What can be used to solve the infertility issue of a lack of FSH? What would this do?
An artificial FSH pill. This would stimulate the eggs in the ovary to mature and would trigger oestrogen production.
99 of 112
What can be used to trigger ovulation?
An artificial LH pill.
100 of 112
What can hormone pills allow a woman to do?
Get pregnant naturally.
101 of 112
Why is it that the doses of FSH and LH are controlled?
To prevent multiple births.
102 of 112
What does IVF stand for?
I vitro fertilisation.
103 of 112
What is the first step of IVF?
Giving the mother FSH and LH.
104 of 112
What is the second step of IVF?
The eggs are collected from the mother and the sperm from the father and is then fertilised in the lab.
105 of 112
What is the third step of IVF?
When the embryos are only balls of cells, they are inspected with microscopes and the best ones are selected for implantation.
106 of 112
What is the fourth step of IVF?
One or two embryos are then implanted into the mother's uterus.
107 of 112
Why is it that IVF is so expensive for individuals and the NHS?
As it requires great skill/doctors to carry out the whole procedure.
108 of 112
Wha can be emotionally and physically stressful about IVF?
That it does not work.
109 of 112
What can IVF lead to, which can put the mother and the baby/babies in danger? (2.)
Premature births and multiple births.
110 of 112
Why is it that premature can cost a lot after birth? (3.)
As they require specialist care in hospital, which is expensive.
111 of 112
Where (in the IVF procedure) could there be ethical issues?
When mature eggs and embryos are stored for future use.
112 of 112

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where does the blood carry hormones to?

Back

The target organ/effector.

Card 3

Front

What are on the cell membranes of the effector organ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What doe the receptors do to trigger a response?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What two hormones act very quickly?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Nervous system, hormones and behaviour resources »