Hormonal Coordination, B11

  • Created by: cieran_10
  • Created on: 19-05-18 21:21
What is the endocrine system and what is ti made up of? (2.)
It is made up of glands tat secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream.
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Where does the blood carry hormones to?
The target organ/effector.
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What are on the cell membranes of the effector organ?
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What doe the receptors do to trigger a response?
Pick up the hormone molecules.
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What two hormones act very quickly?
Insulin and adrenaline.
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What two types of hormones ave long term effects and take a long time to act?
Sex hormones and growth hormones.
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Why do endocrine glands secrete hormones? (2.)
As they provide chemical coordination and control for the body.
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What is the master gland in the brain?
The pituitary gland.
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What can SOME hormones from the pituitary gland do?
Traget certain endocrine glands.
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What does FSH do? (2.)
Stimulates the ovaries to secrete oestrogen.
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What is the female sex hormone?
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What does TSH do? (2.)
Stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroxine.
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Name two hormone that have a direct effect on the body.
ADH and growth hormones.
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What does ADH do?
It affects the amount of urine produced by the kidney.
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Name the six main endocrine glands in the human body.
Pituitary gland, the thyroid gland, the adrenal gland, the pancreas, the ovaries and the testes.
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What doe the pancreas do?
It monitors and controls the levels of glucose in the blood.
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What do receptors in the pancreas do?
Detect the level of glucose in the blood.
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What happens when there is too much glucose in the blood?
The pancreas releases insulin.
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What doe insulin cause?
It causes glucose to move from the blood into the cells.
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In what two body things is excess glucose converted into glycogen for storage?
In the liver and in organs.
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What happens when the glycogen storage is full in the liver and muscles?
The glucose is stored as lipids.
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What can lipids eventually do?
Make a person obese.
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What does insulin cause?
Blood glucose levels to fall.
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Wha does the pancreas realise when glucose blood levels get too low?
It releases glucagon.
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What does glucagon cause? What happens to the product of this?
It causes the glycogen in the liver to change back into glucose. This is released back into the blood.
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What does glucagon interact with, what does this cause to control blood glucose levels?
It interacts with insulin in a negative feedback cycle.
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What may happen when the pancreas produces too little or too much insulin? What condition does this cause?
The glucose blood levels can become to high or too low. This causes type 1 diabetes.
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What is type 2 diabetes caused by?
By the body not responding to its own insulin.
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What is the most significant factor in the root of type 2 diabetes?
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How is type 1 diabetes often treated?
By human insulin.
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What is treating insulin made by?
Genetically engineered bacteria.
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What does a person with type 1 diabetes have to do every day?
Inject themselves with insulin before every meal.
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What do active diabetics have to do, to keep themselves safe?
Match and monitor their insulin injections with their diet and exercise.
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What do SOME diabetics use to inject their insulin?
A pump.
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What do diabetics with pumps have to do?
Adjust the pump, to how much insulin they require.
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Name the five newer methods of treating/curing type 1 diabetes.
Pancreas transplants, transplanting pancreatic cells, using embryonic stem cells to produce insulin producing cells, using adult stem cells from adult diabetics and genetically engineering pancreas cell to make them work properly.
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Name the two MAIN treatments for type 2 diabetes.
Eating a balanced diet and exercising.
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What should type 2 diabetics reduce in their diets?
The amount of carbohydrates they eat.
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Give the three effects of the drugs prescribed for type 2 diabetics that have tried dieting and exercising and it has not worked.
They help the insulin to work better, they help the pancreas to make more insulin or can help reduce amount of glucose absorbed from the gut.
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What do negative feedback systems work to do?
To maintain a steady state.
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Complete the sentence: when a factor in the internal environment increases....
Changes take place to reduce it and restore the original level.
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Complete the sentence: if a factor in the internal environment decreases...
Changes take place to increase it and restore the original level.
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Whatever the initial change is, what will the negative feedback do?
It will cause the opposite.
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Name four hormones involved in negative feedback.
Insulin, glucagon, MOST female sex hormones and thyroxine.
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Where is thyroxine made and where is this?
The thyroid gland in the neck.
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What things does thyroxine control?
The basal metabolic rate, how much oxygen is used by different tissues and how the brain of child develops.
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What is the basal metabolic rate?
The rate that a substance is built up or broken down by chemical reactions in the body.
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What is thyroxine important for?
Growth and development.
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Why do the levels of thyroxine in adults remain stable? What hormone does this involve?
As they have negtive feedabck control. This involves TSH.
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What gland produced TSH?
The pituitary gland.
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What detects the falling levels of thyroxine in the blood?
Sensors in the brain.
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What does a low level of thyroxine cause to be released and from what gland?
TSH from the pituitary gland.
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What does TSH stimulate?
The amount of thyroxine produced by the thyroid gland.
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What negative feedback process involves thyroxine and TSH? (2.)
When a rising level of thyroxine is detected by the brain, the level of TSH inthe blood falls.
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Where is adrenaline produced? Where is this?
By the adrenal glands above the kidneys.
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Why is adrenaline named the fight or flight hormone? (3.)
As it is produced when a person is stressed, frightened or agnry.
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What is the procution of adrenaline NOT controlled by?
By negative feedback.
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What five things does adrenaline cause when released?
Breathing rate and geart rate to increase, stored glycogen in the liver to be converted into glucose for respiration, pupils to dilate to let more light in, mental awareness to increase and an increase in the flow of blood with + oxygen in the limbs.
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What primary sexual charecteristics are babies born with? (2.)
Ovaries in girls and and testes in boys.
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What do the ovaries and testes produce during puberty? What do these trigger?
Sex hormones. These trigger the development of the secondary sexual charecteristics.
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Whst is the main sex hormone produced by the ovaries?
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What ten secondary sexual charecteristics happen due to the release of oestrogen?
Growth spurt, the growth of underarm and pubic hair, breasts develop, the external genitals grow, genital skin darkens, fat is deposited on the hips buttocks and thighs, the brain changes and matures, mature ova start to form monthly in the ovaries,
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The uterus gorws and becomes more active and menustration begins.
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What happens monthly as a part of the mentrual cycle?
An eggg begins to mature in the ovaries.
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What happens to the uterus lining during menustration and for what?
It thickens resdy for prganancy.
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What happens every 28 days in the mesutration cycle? What is the name givne to this process?
A mature egg is relased from the ovary. This is ovulation.
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What happens when the egg is not fertilsied? How many days later does this happen?
The lining of the uterus and the egg are ahed arund 14 days later.
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What does FSH cause?
The eggs in the ovary to mature.
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What is the folicle?
It is a tissue of cells surrounding the maturing egg.
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What does LH do?
It stimulates the release of the egg at ovulation.
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What do oestrogen and progesterone do?
They stimulate the build up and maintainance of the uterus lining.
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What is the main male reporductive hormone and where is it made?
Testosterone in the testes.
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List the nine male secondary sexual characteristics.
A growth spurt, the growth of pubic hair underarm hair and facial hair, the larynx grows and the voice breaks, the external genitalia grows, the genital skins grows darker, the testes grow and become more active, the testes produce sperm throughout..
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... life, the shoulders and chest broaden as muscles develop and the brain matures.
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Where is FSH secreted from?
In the pituitary gland.
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What does FSH do?
Makes eggs mature in their follicles in the ovaries.
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What OTHER hormone does FSH stimulate the production of?
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Where is oestrogen secreted and made from?
The ovaries.
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What does oestrogen do?
It stimulates the lining of the uterus to grow again after menstruation.
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What does oestrogen inhibit the further production of?
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What does oestrogen stimulate the release of when its levels are high?
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What is LH secreted from?
The pituitary gland.
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What does LH do?
It stimulates the release of a mature egg from the ovary.
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What happens to the levels of LH once ovulation has taken place?
They fall.
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What s progesterone secreted by?
The empty egg follicle in the ovary after ovulation.
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What does progesterone help to maintain if an egg is fertilised?
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What two hormones does progesterone inhibit?
LH and FSH.
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What does progesterone do and why? When does it do this?
It maintains the lining of the uterus in the second half of the cycle, so that it is ready to receive a developing embryo if the egg is fertilised.
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What happens when LH levels peak? When do they do this?
Ovulation occurs in the middle of the cycle.
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What are FSH and LH inhibited by? Why does this happen?
High levels of oestrogen and progesterone: this keeps the uterus ready for pregnancy.
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What happens if the egg does not fertilise? (2.)
The levels of each hormone then fall. The lining of the uterus is then shed.
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What happens to FSH when the egg is not fertilised? What does this stimulate?
It is no longer inhibited, meaning its levels then rise. This stimulates the ovaries to produce oestrogen again.
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What is contraception? (There are two possible answers.)
Stopping the egg and the sperm from meeting or preventing a fertilised egg from implanting in the uterus.
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What do oral contraceptives contain and why? (2.)
Hormones to inhibit FSH production, to stop the egg from maturing.
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What does the mixed pill contain? (2.)
Low doses of oestrogen and SOME progesterone.
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What do SOME pills only contain?
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What three things do the pill hormones do?
They inhibit FSH production so that no eggs are released, they stop the uterus lining from developing to stop egg implantation and they make mucus in the cervix thick to stop sperm form entering into the uterus.
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Name the five MAIN causes of female infertility.
A lack of female hormones, damage to the oviducts, obesity, eating disorders and a higher age.
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What can be used to solve the infertility issue of a lack of FSH? What would this do?
An artificial FSH pill. This would stimulate the eggs in the ovary to mature and would trigger oestrogen production.
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What can be used to trigger ovulation?
An artificial LH pill.
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What can hormone pills allow a woman to do?
Get pregnant naturally.
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Why is it that the doses of FSH and LH are controlled?
To prevent multiple births.
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What does IVF stand for?
I vitro fertilisation.
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What is the first step of IVF?
Giving the mother FSH and LH.
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What is the second step of IVF?
The eggs are collected from the mother and the sperm from the father and is then fertilised in the lab.
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What is the third step of IVF?
When the embryos are only balls of cells, they are inspected with microscopes and the best ones are selected for implantation.
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What is the fourth step of IVF?
One or two embryos are then implanted into the mother's uterus.
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Why is it that IVF is so expensive for individuals and the NHS?
As it requires great skill/doctors to carry out the whole procedure.
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Wha can be emotionally and physically stressful about IVF?
That it does not work.
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What can IVF lead to, which can put the mother and the baby/babies in danger? (2.)
Premature births and multiple births.
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Why is it that premature can cost a lot after birth? (3.)
As they require specialist care in hospital, which is expensive.
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Where (in the IVF procedure) could there be ethical issues?
When mature eggs and embryos are stored for future use.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Where does the blood carry hormones to?


The target organ/effector.

Card 3


What are on the cell membranes of the effector organ?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What doe the receptors do to trigger a response?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What two hormones act very quickly?


Preview of the front of card 5
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