Hormonal Co-ordination B11

What does the pituitary gland do?
-Secretes a variety of hormones, stimulate the production of others: ~FSH, stimulates the ovaries to create oestrogen ~TSH,stimulates the production of thyroxine ~ADH, affects urine production ~Growth hormone, controls the rate of growth in children
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What does the thyroid gland do?
-Secretes thyroxine which helps control your metabolic rate -Target organ: organs throughout body
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What does the pancreas do?
-Secretes insulin and glucagon which control your blood glucose levels Target organ: Liver
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What does the adrenal gland do?
-Secretes adrenaline which prepares the body for stress situations and the 'flight or fight' response Target organ: Cardiovascular system
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What do the ovaries do? (hormones)
-Secretes oestrogen which controls the development of female secondary sexual characteristics and is involved in the menstrual cycle Target organ: Ovaries and uterus
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What do the testes do? (hormones)
-Secretes testosterone which controls the development of the male secondary sexual characteristics and is involved in the production of sperm Target organ: Male reproductive organs
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What happens if there is too much glucose in the blood?
-Pancreas detects high glucose concentration in the blood -Pancreas secretes insulin -Some of the glucose is taken in by body cells to be used for respiration -Some of the glucose is converted to glycogen to be stored -Glucose levels return to normal
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What happens if there is too little glucose in the blood?
-Pancreas detects low glucose concentration -Pancreas secretes glucagon -Glucagon stimulates glycogen to be converted into glucose -Glucose levels return to normal
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What are the symptoms of diabetes?
-Feeling very tired due to insufficient energy being provided to muscles -Frequent urination as they must get rid of their unused glucose leading them to feel thirsty -Type 1 will lose weight as they use fat and protein as fuel rather than for growth
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How do you treat Type 1 diabetes?
-No cure -Can have a pancreatic transplant but limited donors and recipient must take immunosuppressants daily -Main treatment is injecting insulin directly into the blood stream -Can have insulin pumps which continually pumps insulin into the blood
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Why can't your body create insulin if you have Type 1 diabetes?
-Your immune system, mistakenly, attacks the healthy pancreas cells -This means your pancreas is then unable to create insulin therefore glucose cannot move out of your bloodstream leading to high blood glucose concentration
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What are the risk factors for Type 2 diabetes?
-Age (40+) -Genetics (the closer the relative, the higher the risk of developing the disease -Weight (being obese significantly increase the chance of developing Type 2 diabetes)
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How does Type 2 diabetes differ from Type 1?
In Type 1 the body does not produce insulin whereas in Type 2 not enough insulin is produced to maintain a normal glucose level or the body cells become unresponsive to the insulin produced and are unable to use it
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How do you treat Type 2 diabetes?
-In most cases improving your diet and exercise regime will help with weight loss and mean your body cells can respond to insulin -Sometimes this doesn't work so drugs may be needed to control your glucose levels -Rarely they may need inject insulin
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What does thyroxine do?
-Stimulates the basal metabolic rate -More thyroxine, higher metabolic rate -Plays an important role in growth and development
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Give an example of a hormone controlled by negative feedback and one that is not
-Thyroxine is controlled by negative feedback -Adrenaline is not controlled by negative feedback
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What does oestrogen do in the menstrual cycle?
-Secreted by the ovaries -Thickens the uterus lining -Stimulates the production of LH -Inhibits the production of FSH
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What does LH do in the menstrual cycle?
-Secreted by the pituitary gland -Triggers ovulation -Stimulates the production of progesterone -
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What does progesterone do in the menstrual cycle?
-Secreted by the ovaries -Maintains the uterus lining -Inhibits FSH and LH
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What does FSH do in the menstrual cycle?
-Secreted by the pituitary gland -Causes follicle to mature -Stimulates the ovaries to produce oestrogen
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If a woman had low levels of FSH and never ovulated what fertility treatment could she get?
-LH and FSH hormone injection -It will stimulate ovulation allowing her to become pregnant
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What are the advantages of IVF?
-Gives people with infertility problems a chance to become pregnant -NHS funds first two cycles -Same-sex couples can have children -Success rate is improving (but still fairly low) -Been used for a fairly long time
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What are the disadvantages of IVF?
-High chance of multiple births (1 in 5) -Higher chance of ectopic pregnancies (chance is doubled) -Very expensive (at least £5,000 for one cycle) -Emotionally and physically painful -Can cause health problems for mother and baby
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What is tropism, phototropism and gravitropism?
1. The response of plant roots and shoots to light and gravity 2.The response of plant roots and shoots to light 3. The response of plant roots and shoots solely to gravity
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What causes tropisms?
-The plant hormone auxin -Extra auxin promotes growth in the shoots but inhibits growth in the roots
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What happens if there is light on one side of a plant?
-Plant shoots grow towards light -More auxin accumulates on the shady side -This means the cells on the shaded side will elongate and grow the most to allow the plant to bend towards the light
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How are auxins used in agriculture?
-Weed killers, weed killers using auxin have been developed to disrupts the plants normal growing pattern killing them -Growing plant cuttings, auxin is used in root powder to make plant cuttings grow roots meaning clones of good plants can be made
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How are gibberellins used in agriculture?
-Controlling dormancy, most seeds won't germinate unless they've been through certain conditions so gibberellin can -Inducing flowering, gibberellins mean plants will flower with no environmental change -Growing larger fruit or flowers
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How is ethene used in agriculture?
-Ethene influences the growth of a plant by controlling cell division and also stimulates enzymes which cause fruit to ripen -Ethene can be used to speed up fruit ripening e.g. when they are being transported to shops so they are perfect on the shelf
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does the thyroid gland do?

Back

-Secretes thyroxine which helps control your metabolic rate -Target organ: organs throughout body

Card 3

Front

What does the pancreas do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the adrenal gland do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What do the ovaries do? (hormones)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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