Homeworks Cards

What is the difference between a cremello and a perlino?
A cremello is a chestnut with two creme genes. A perlino is a bay with two creme genes
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where would you find a horse's croup?
Between the loin and the tail. Anatomically it is the area defined by the pelvis
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What type of joint is a coffin joint?
Saddle
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What kind of joint is a fetlock?
Hinge
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Which point of the horse is equivalent to the human knee?
Stifle
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What is the primary function of synovial fluid?
to reduce friction between the articular cartilage of synovial joints during movement. It also provides nourishment to the joint cartilage.
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What is the name of the type of cell that is responsible for bone formation?
Osteoblasts
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What is the name of the rounded distal end of a bone?
Condyl
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How many thoracic vertebrae does a horse have?
17, 18 or 19. Arabian horses usually but not always have 17. Most horses have 18 and occasionally have 19. This extra rib is usually partially formed and/or mis-shapen
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What is thermogenesis?
The production of heat by metabolic process
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When a horse sleeps standing up, the patella is able to lock in place above the femoral trochlea. What ligaments are responsible for holding the patella in place?
The straight patellar ligaments
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The distalmost bone in the horse's body has several names. Give three of them:
Coffin bone, Pedal bone, Distal Phalanx, Third Phalanx, P3
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A vet digs for an abcess in the lateral bar. He digs a hole approximately 1cm square at the dorsalmost tip of the bar and stops the moment the wound begins to bleed. Name 8 anatomical structures that could have been affected:
Insensitive frog, sensitive frog, inner wall of the bar, outer wall of the bar, white line of the bar, sole, solar corium, bar laminae, nerves, collagen, fascia
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Name the four stages of healing
Haemostasis (clotting), Inflammation (Destroys bacteria and cleans the wound of dead cells), Proliferation (formation of scar tissue), Remodelling (Collagen fibres are reorganised to improve tensile strength)
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According to Bob Bowker's haemodynamics theory, what tissue type invades an understimulated digital cushion?
Adipose (fatty)
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Which type of blood vessel carries de-oxygenated blood away from the hoof capsule?
Veins (palmar digital)
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When a vet uses a nerve block to determine whether a horse has heel pain in the left hind leg, what is the name of the nerve which is anaesthetised?
Plantar Digital Nerve
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How does the digital cushion (part of the internal arch) influence the angle of the pedal bone?
It doesnt really directly affect the angle of the P3 and only the dorsal tip sits under the pedal bone. However a strong DC will support and improve the angle of the lateral cartilages in a better position which DOES influence the angle of the P3
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How do the lateral cartilages (part of the internal arch) influence the angle of the P3?
They are bonded to the back of the P3 meaning if they collapse, the pedal bone will too
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How does the DDFT (part of the internal arch) influence the angle of the P3?
It is attached to the underside of the P3 and therefore suspends it. If the DDFT were severed, the other structures would prevent it from dropping
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How do the laminae (part of the internal arch) influence the angle of the P3?
“laminar wedge” is known to cause pedal bone rotation. Strong lamina that has a good attachment to the hoof wall keeps the shape of the hoof healthy which greatly aids a good pedal bone angle.
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How do the heels (part of the internal arch) influence the angle of the P3 how?
Long heels (particularly with a short toe) cause the angle to alter, much like wearing stilettos changes your foot bones. Removing the heel height instantly changes the angle of the P3
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How does the sensitive frog influence the angle of the P3?
The Frog sits under the digital cushion and aids with concussion, circulation and heel support. It supports and stimulates the Digital cushion which in turn influences the strength and shape of the lateral cartilages which are attached to the bottom
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When a horse's level of circulating blood glucose rises, insulin plays an important role in returning glucose levels to normal. NAme three ways in which circulating glucose is used in the body
Enters the cells to create energy, Can be converted to lipoproteins which are stored as fats, and can be converted to Glycogen which is stored to energise muscles later.
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The most common test for Equine PPID is by measuring levels of the stimulating hormone for cortisol. What is the name of this hormone?
ACTH
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What is the name of the hormone which stimulates Cortisol production?
ACTH
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Fibre is a type of carbohydrate which is made up of what?
Sugars
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Sugars from fibre are digested within the gut but how does the gut break down fibre?
Fermentation within the hind gut
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Fibre is critical to digestion starting at the mouth. Explain how this first step affects digestion
Eating fibrous material such as hay requires four times more chews that cereals. This produces four times as much saliva which buffers the hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
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How are stomach ulcers caused?
Acid sits in the bottom of the stomach. When it splashes (for example because it is empty), the acid damages the lining in the top of the stomach
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Fibre keeps the digestive system moving how?
Insoluble fibre contributes bulk to faeces helping to put pressure on the colon wall, and thus stimulating bowel movement. This speeds up digestive transit and encourages more trickle feeding
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How does fibre provide hydration?
It doaks up and holds water in the gut which then acts as a water and electrolyte reserve when the horse needs it
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List the common Micronutrients (hint: present in less that 1g quantities in the diet)
Molybdenum, Selenium, Iodine, Iron, Vit B, Manganese, Copper, Cobalt, Zinc, Chromium, Boron, Vit C
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List the common Macronutrients (hint: present in quantities more than 1g)
Magnesium, Potassium, Phosphate, Sodium, Sulphur, Calcium, Carbs, Fibre
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What is the dilution rate for Milton
One capful to a gallon of water
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What is Ankylosis?
Where joints become arthritic and painful, and then fuse together completely which usually stops the pain. Vets fuse joints intentionally for this reason when they are painfully arthritic.
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What is another name for Degenerative Joint Disease?
Arthritis
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What is a Bog Spavin?
(think bog = wet) A soft swelling on the medial surface of the hock resulting from excessive fluid within the joint capsule
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What is a Bone Spavin?
Osteoarthritis of the lower hock (the central and third tarsal). These bones do not move much so ankylosis is inevitable usually
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What is a Bowed Tendon?
Commonly known as Tendonitis. A strained torn or inflamed tendon, which usually results in a lump on the back of the limb. Most common in the flexor tendons and DDFT
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What is a bucked shin?
Microfractures of the cannon bone caused by high strain repetitive fatigue. As new bone forms the rough surface aggravates the periosteum which becomes inflamed
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What is a Capped Hock?
Inflammatory swelling of the bursa, or synovial capsule which surrounds the hock joint at the point of the hock
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What does the Inferior Check Ligament do?
Attaches the DDFT to the back of the cannon bone
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What is a check ligament strain
inflammation or damage to the inferior check ligament.
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What is a Corn?
An area of sole that artificially thickens as a result of repeated bruising
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What is Curb? (the condition, not the chain)
A swelling in the distal plantar aspect of the Tarsus. Usually the plantar ligament on the plantar aspect of the calcaneus.
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What is Ringbone?
Arthritis of the coffin joint (low ringbone) or the pastern joint (high ringbone)
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What is locking stifle?
When the medial patellar ligament remains hooked over the medial trochlear ridge of the femur and locks the stay apparatus with the limb extended
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What is Shivers?
A rare neuromuscular disorder characterised by muscle tremors, difficulty holding up the hindlibs and an unusual gait when asked to move backwards
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What is sidebone?
Ossification of the collateral cartilages of the coffin bone.
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What is a Splint
Periostitis of the interosseous ligament between the splint bones. Bony lump of new bone along the involved splint bone.
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What is Stocking Up/Filled legs
Swollen legs, distal portion only, usually of hinds from standing too long. Poor circulation
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What is Stringhalt?
A gait abnormality characterised by exaggerate upward flexion of the hindlimb
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What is Suspensory Ligament Strain?
Suspensory Desmitis (strained , torn or inflamed suspensory ligament.
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What is Thoroughpin?
A fluidy lump just above the hock that can be pushed from the lateral to medial limb and back. Effusal (leakage) of the tarsal sheath)
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What are Windgalls?
articular is an enlargement of the fetlock joint capsule or non articular is enlargement of the DDFT sheath
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What does a cell consist of? In terms of inner, middle and outer?
Inner is the nucleus. This tells the cell how to behave. Middle is the Cytoplasm which is a sac of gel and the outer is the plasma membrane.
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THe outer shell of a cell is a plasma membrane. What is it made of?
Proteins. They allow certain substances through the cell wall. They allow some hormones to bind to the cell. They allow enzymes to cling and enable other cells to identify the type of cell.
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The inside of a cell is called what?
Cytoplasm. It contains enzymes, salts and organic molecules but is mainly water.
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Where in a cell would you find DNA? (the instruction manual for how the cell should operate)
The nucleus
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"Tight Junctions" are a type of cell membrane. Describe them
Tight juntions are found in cells that are joined together by AREAS of tightly fused membrane. It looks like stitching. When tight junctions hold two membranes together nothing can permeate the cell wall. This makes them useful in the intestinal wall
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What are desmosomes?
Desmosomes are a type of cell membrane. Tiny filaments on cell walls which interlock with the filaments of neighbouring cell walls. They are like velcro that can attach and re-attach which is why they are found in the hoof wall
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What are Gap junctions?
A type of cell membrane. These are like tunnels through the wall of connecting cells forming a passage from the cytoplasm in one cell to its neighbour. Electrical impulses pass through many cells this way making them very useful in the cardiac muscle
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What are the three types of nerve tissue?
Brain, Spinal Cord and Nerves
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Name the three types of muscle tissue
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac
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What is the peripheral nervous system?
Nerve fibres supplying the body (not the brain stem or spinal cord)
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What comprises a nerve cell?
A neuron with receivers at one end (dendrites) and transmitters at the other end (axons)
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Axons are surrounded by a fatty substance called a MYELIN SHEATH. What is its purpose?
Myelin is an electrically insulating layer. The thicker the MYELIN SHEATH the faster the transmission. When a sheath thins (eg magnesium deficiency) the signals become slower
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What are GLIAL CELLS?
Glial cells surround nerve fibres. They nourish and support neurons
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Dendrites are sensory receptors. One type of dendrite is a Mechanoreceptor. What do these do?
Detect pressure changes (ie changes caused by deformation of the surrounding tissues)
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Dendrites are sensory receptors. One type of dendrite is a Thermoreptor. What do these do?
Detect temperature changes
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Dendrites are sensory receptors. One type of dendrite is a Nociceptor. What do these do?
Detect Pain (stimuli which may indicate tissue damage)
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Dendrites are sensory receptors. One type of dendrite is a Photoreceptor. What do these do?
Detect light. For instance on the retina of an eye
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Dendrites are sensory receptors. One type of dendrite is a Chemooreceptor. What do these do?
Detect chemical changes such as taste, smell, blood PH, hormone balance, CO2 levels in the blood
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Merkels Discs are a type of mechanoreceptor. What do these do?
Detect PRESSURE at the sharpest resolution. They are found in the basal layer of the epidermis and in hair follicles. They would sense a fly landing on a hair
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Meissner's Corpuscles are a type of mechanoreceptor. What do these do?
Sense Vibration Mostly found in hairless areas such as lips and around the eyes. In the hoof the Frog Dermis
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Pacinian Corpuscles are a type of mechanoreceptor. What do these do?
Detect sudden pressure as well as texture in external surfaces. They fire when pressure is applied and again when released. Proprioceptors as well as detecting locomotion and stance
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Ruffini Corpuscles are a type of mechanoreceptor. What do these do?
Usually found in the skin - sensitive to stretching of the skin. Slippage of objects against the skin. They are also thermoreceptors because they detect HEAT. In the hoof they are mainly found in the solar corium.
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Lanceolate Endings do what?
Sit around the base of each hair and detect any movement in the follicle (think split ends)
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Areolar is what kind of tissue?
Loose Connective Tissue (connects tissues and organs, Superficial Fascia)
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Adipose is what kind of tissue?
Loose Connective Tissue. Fatty
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Reticular is what kind of tissue?
Loose Connective Tissue. Bone marrow, Lymph Nodes, Inner framework of the spleen
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What is Loose Connective Tissue?
The most common tissue found in mammals. It is pliable tissue high in moisture which cushions and protects the structures it connects to
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What is Regular DENSE connective tissue?
Tendons and ligaments. Lengths of collagen laid parallel
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What is IRREGULAR dense connective tissue?
Deep Fascia, Eyeballs, Annular Ligaments. Untidy collagen fibres alighned in different directions enabling the tissue to stretch in all directions
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Hyaline is a type of what?
Cartilage
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Where in the body would you find Hyaline Cartilage?
Joint surfaces, scutums, epiphiseal plates,
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Fibrocartilage is a type of what?
Cartilage
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Where in the body would you find Fibrocartilage?
Intravertebral discs, Sternum, Head of the scapula, knee/hock cartilage, lateral cartilages
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What type of cartilage are LATERAL CARTILAGES?
Fibrocartilage
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Blood vessels partly consist of connective tissue. What are they lined with?
Muscle tissue and Epithelial Tissue
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Name the hard exterior of a bone
Compacta (compact bone)
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Name the honeycomb inner layer of a bone
Spongiosa (spongy bone)
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What is Epithelial tissue?
Lines the inner and outer surface of blood vessels and organs throughout the body.
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Describe Squamous Cells
Epithelial Tissue. Flattened/squashed
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Describe Columnar Cells
Epithelial Tissue. Tubular in structure
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Describe Cuboidal Cells
Epithelial tissue. Cube Shaped
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Epitheleal tissue which is one cell thick is called what?
Simple
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Epithelial tissue in multiple layers is called what?
Stratified
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What are Pseudostratified Cells?
cells which look like they are two layers thick but up close are actually only one cell thick
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What are transitional Epithelial cells?
Stratified (multi layered) and can be stretched/distorted and returned to shape instantly. For example the bladder.
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What is Glandular Epithelial tissue?
This is what glands are made of. Capable of secreting enzymes and hormones
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What are the three types of muscle tissue?
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac
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Skeletal muscles are the most common type of muscle tissue. What kind of movement are they needed for?
Voluntary movement
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Smooth Muscle tissue is needed for what?
Involuntary actions such as peristalsis (gut moving food through, oesophagus etc)
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Cardiac muscle is used for what?
Heart Contraction
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What is the purpose of the skeletal system?
Provides framework which SUPPORTS the body mass. PROTECTS delicate structures such as the brain. MOTION - joints, tendon, ligament and muscle attachments allow movement, MINERAL STORAGE ie calcium & phosphate crystals, HAEMOPOIESIS (production of blo
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A vascular membrane of a bone is called what?
Periosteum
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What are Osteoblasts?
Bone building cells which can increase the width of bone when calcium needs to be laid down and stored
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Wht is an Epiphysis?
The extreme, rounded end of a bone
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What is a Metaphysis?
The section of the bone near to the end where the growth plates are found
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What is a Diaphysis?
The shaft of the long bone
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What is Articular Cartilage?
Articular = joint.
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What is a Medullary cavity?
Marrow cavity inside a bone. This is where Haematopiesis happens
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What is an Endosteum?
The membrane that lines the Medulla Cavity.
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The rounded end of a joint is called a Condyl. What is the cupped end called?
Fossa
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

where would you find a horse's croup?

Back

Between the loin and the tail. Anatomically it is the area defined by the pelvis

Card 3

Front

What type of joint is a coffin joint?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What kind of joint is a fetlock?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which point of the horse is equivalent to the human knee?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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