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When did people begin to recruit and what was their initial reaction?
August 1914 and first there was widespread patriotism, a romantic idea that it would be over before christmas MISUNDERSTOOD by Jan1915 million
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Who was the Secretary of State for war?
Lord Kitchener
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When the number of casualties increased in 1915, what did the government do to increase recruits?
Introduced propaganda to maintain support, and to increase volunteers = National Registration System in July & Derby Scheme in Oct but only 1/2 million
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When and what was conscription?
May 1916 under the Military Service Act married men 18-41 but reserved occupations such as munition and miners were exempt
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Why was it introduced?
Volunteers falling, casualties increasing and volunteer system damaging industry FIRST6weeks=>1/2million Nov1916=2million
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Who opposed conscription?
50 MPs + conscientious objectors 16000 -> 1500 imprisoned
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What was D.O.R.A ?
Defence of the Realm Act gave government wide ranging power and control over lives e.g. Seize buildings and land, censorship+newspapers, GB Summer Time, watered down beer
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What was the munitions crisis?
1915 = 1st major problem Frontline rationed to 3 rounds per day trained with wooden sticks couldn't defend enemy trenches
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What did Lloyd George do to help?
Minister of Munitions in 1915 - delivered the goods - opened munition factories and took control of 20,000 recognised shortage skilled workers so encouraged to stay where needed
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How did the trade unions respond?
TU protested 235000 striker 1916 and 2.5 million working days lost
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What did Lloyd George also try and do?
Bring women into the work force however TU resisted as worried would effect men's wages so promised would be payed the same and jobs would be returned. In 1915, 100,000 registered but only 5000 given jobs
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When did food shortages first become apparent?
FEB = took over land for farming and Women's Land Army was created 260,000 members APRIL=desperate as German u boats sunk 1 in 4 merchant ships only 6 weeks wheat left
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What was a consequence of these food shortages?
Prices increases and had doubled since 1914 - Rich hoarded, poor couldn't afford basics, shops closed early but wages didn't increase (strike1917=wage increase)
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What did the government try and do?
In May 1917, encouraged voluntary rationing lead by the royal family - reduced bread consumption by 1/4 and November 9 penny loaf - economical recipes
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When voluntary rationing failed, when was compulsory rationing introduced and what did it include?
1918 = sugar butter meat and beer - coupons and stiff penalties
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In what ways did the government use propaganda?
ONLY PUBLISHED GOOD NEWS (soldiers secretive, Lord Beaverbrook=Minister for Info) BOOKS (Declaration by authors, Red Book by Oxford) FORCED CENSORSHIP (closed tribunal & monitored, Gov Press Bureau + Intelligence services examined articles CHILDREN
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How did women contribute to the war effort?
NUWSS + WSPU suspended campaign, NUWSS used publicity machine, Pankhurst fought for munition work, persuaded to enlist (order of white feather, mothers union), helped munitions - even though V dangerous 800,000=engineering500,000=office200,000=clerks
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Card 2

Front

Who was the Secretary of State for war?

Back

Lord Kitchener

Card 3

Front

When the number of casualties increased in 1915, what did the government do to increase recruits?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When and what was conscription?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why was it introduced?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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