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What is a total war?
A total war involves or affects all of society - not just the armed forces.
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How did the Government encourage recruitment?
They began a massive recruitment drive with: leaflets, posters, etc. The press strengthened the anti-German feeling by publishing stories of German atrocities. Conscription was introduced in 1916 and recruitment campaigns.
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How did the media represent the Germans?
They told of German atrocities, such as: babies being butchered in Belgium, nurses being murdered and a German factory that produced soap from boiled-up corpses.
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How many soldiers enlisted in the first month?
500 000
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How many soldiers enlisted in 1916?
Over 2 million
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What is conscription?
In 1916, all men aged 18-40 had to sign up for active service at war. They could be called up at any time to fight.
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Why was conscription introduced?
The number of volunteers was falling but the demand for troops was increasing. The dead and wounded needed replacing. Some of the most able men were not volunteering to work in agriculture instead.
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What was the nickname of people who refused to go to war?
Conscientious Objectors or 'Conchies' would refuse to go to war due to religious or political reasons. It would be against their conscience to fight.
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What were the consequences of refusing the draft (conscription)?
'Conchies' had to appear before a tribunal and prove they had a genuine reason for objecting to go to war and were not just cowardly. Some were sent to prison and treated very badly. Others went to work as stretcher-bearers on the front line.
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What is DORA?
In 1914, the government passed the Defence of the Realm Act which gave the government unprecedented and wide-ranging powers to control many aspects of people's everyday lives.
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What did DORA allow the government to do?
They could seize any land or buildings, take over any industry which had an impact on the war effort and control what the citizens knew about the war through censorship.
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What was the munitions crisis?
In 1915, there was a chronic shortage of shells, bullets and armaments on the Western Front. Soldiers were rationed to 3 rounds of ammunition a day. The artillery failed to hold their barrage of enemy trenches. The Daily Mail exposed the scandal.
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How did Lloyd George solve the shortage of workers?
He forced skilled workers to stay where the government needed them instead of going elsewhere for better pay. He also introduced women to the workforce to fill the places of men who were absent due to the war.
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Why were trade unions worried about women workers?
They worried that the effect of women in the workforce would be the dilution of its members wages. They argued that women work for lower pay than men.
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When and why was voluntary rationing introduced?
In May 1917, voluntary rationing was introduced because food supplies were short due to German U-Boats sinking 1 in 4 British merchant ships. As a result, food prices rose and people could not even afford basic supplies.
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When and why was compulsory rationing introduced?
In early 1918, compulsory rationing was introduced due to other measures such as 'the Ninepenny Loaf' failing to deliver a huge impact on conserving the limited food supplies.
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What was not reported in October 1914 and why?
When the British battleship HMS Audacious was sunk, it was not reported because the government let only good news about the war reach the civilians. Censorship was a method of encouraging British civilians to support the war effort.
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Why did soldiers censor themselves?
To prevent relatives from knowing the truth about the activity on the front line so as not to worry them.
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What was the Declaration of Authors?
Leading authors signed the Declaration of Authors in support of the war. They released patriotic publications for no fee. The history department of Oxford University created the Red Book which had explanations of why Britain was right to go to war.
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What propaganda was used on children?
Toys, patriotic books and comics were made to encourage support towards the war effort and to make the German enemy look treacherous and cowardly.
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How many people watched the film 'For the Empire'?
9 million
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What was special about the film 'The Battle of the Somme'?
It was a propaganda triumph - it used real scenes from the battle, including real casualties. People could see what the conditions at war were really like and it allowed them to understand the realities.
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What patriotic organisations were there?
The Fight for Right Movement, the Council of Loyal British Subjects and the Victoria League.
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Before 1916, how did the public generally feel towards 'Conchies'?
They were mostly treated as cowards by the press despite considerable evidence that many of them were brave individuals.
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What was the turning point when people started to turn against or criticise the war?
The Battle of the Somme because half a million soldiers had died for just a few square metres of gained territory.
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How was the end of the war greeted?
With as much relief as with a sense of triumph. People were all too aware of the human and financial cost of the war in Britain and were desperate to re-build their lives and their country.
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Card 2

Front

How did the Government encourage recruitment?

Back

They began a massive recruitment drive with: leaflets, posters, etc. The press strengthened the anti-German feeling by publishing stories of German atrocities. Conscription was introduced in 1916 and recruitment campaigns.

Card 3

Front

How did the media represent the Germans?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How many soldiers enlisted in the first month?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How many soldiers enlisted in 1916?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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