History: Why did the Nazis Persecute Many Groups in Germany?

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What two problems did Hitler face which were causing a 'weak' Germany?
There were divisions of class, religion and political beliefs, and the Aryan race was contaminated by mixing with other races.
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What was Hitler's 'answer' to solve the problems causing a 'weak' Germany?
To create a national community (the Volk) - people would need to: 1. Be pure Aryans 2. Be physically and Mentally healthy 3. Be socially useful and 4. Welcome Nazism
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In which two ways was Hitler going to achieve his creation of the 'Volk'?
By selective breeding and by rounding up the undesirables and killing them.
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What would Hitler's result be?
The Aryan master race would make Germany a leading world power.
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Like many people in the early years of the twentieth century what did Hitler believe in?
A form of Social Darwinism.
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Who was Charles Darwin?
A nineteenth century scientist who argued that all living creatures had changed over time. They way they changed was only the fittest and strongest survived. The weak and vulnerable species died out because they couldn't compete with the strong.
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What did some people who applied Darwin's ideas to human society believe?
That was between individual races was a natural part of history. The strongest and most ruthless would win this struggle.
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Talk about Hitler's belief that the Germanic people (the Aryans) were the strongest.
According to Hitler, Aryans were superior not just because of their intelligence but because of their capacity to work and sacrifice themselves for their country.
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If Aryans were the master race - why did they lose the first world war?
Hitler said it was because the German Nation had been divided and weakened. If the Nazis didn't take action to prevent this weakening of the German race then Germany could not become strong again.
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What was another reason which explained the weakness of Germany according to Hitler?
Because more than a million of Germany's healthiest young men had been killed in the First World War. So throughout the 1920s there was a shortage of Aryan men to father children.
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How would Hitler solve the problem of their being a shortage of Aryan men to father children?
He would need to encourage all available Aryan men to have lots of healthy children, but equally to make sure that those who did not fit the Nazis' ideal did not.
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What did the tests include which helped to decide who were ideal Aryans?(2)
Matching hair colours and measuring the dimensions of the face.
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What is meant by the term Ideal Germans were 'socially useful'? What was everyone else seen as?
They had a job and contributed to the Volk. Everybody else was seen as a 'burden on the community'
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Give a list of seven groups of people who would not be tolerated in the Third Reich.
Those who could not or would not work (the 'work-shy'), the unhealthy, the severely disabled and mentally handicapped, tramps and beggars.
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What two things were the people not tolerated in the Third Reich (nazi regime/nazi Germany) seen as?
Useless and expensive.
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Why were people not tolerated in the Third Reich seen as expensive?
Because with the advances of modern medicine many more 'unproductive' people with serious illnesses or hereditary defects were being kept alive. The cost of caring for them was increasing as their numbers grew.
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Name four groups who were seen as asocial and undesirable by the Nazis. What were these people considered as?
Alcoholics, Prostitutes, Homosexuals and Juvenile delinquents. They were considered dangerous.
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Who wouldn't undermine and threaten the Nazi programme?
People in Germany who didn't fit their ideal.
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Who were the Nazis particularly feared of? What three characteristics did they supposedly have?
Gypsies because they were Non-Aryan and seen as homeless and 'work-shy'
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What were the Nazis determined to stop the Gypsies in Germany doing? How did they do this?
Mixing with Aryan Germans. They banned marriage between Gypsies and Germans in 1935.
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What decree was issued in 1938? What was the aim of this?
A Decree for the 'Struggle against the Gypsy Plague' - who's aim was to register all Gypsies and so be able to ensure the racial separation of Gypsies form Aryans.
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What were the four steps that the Nazi campaign against burdens build up?
Step 1: Propaganda Step 2: The Sterilisation Law Step 3: The Concentration Camps Step 4: The Euthanasia Campaign
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Describe Step 1: Propaganda
A propaganda campaign was started which tried to stir up resentment against people who were burdens on the community.
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Describe Step 2: The Sterilisation Law.
In July 1933 the Nazis passed a Sterilisation Law which allowed Nazis to sterilise people with certain illnesses. These terms were interpreted very freely.
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Talk about Sterilisation in many countries in the 1920s and 1930s.
The idea of preventing 'undesirables' from having children became popular. In the USA a few persistent criminals were compulsory sterilised so they couldn't have children.
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Name two illnesses that the Nazis could sterilise people with under the Sterilisation Law.
'simple-mindedness' and 'chronic alcoholism'
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Talk about the statistics of sterilisation after the law was introduced.
In September 1933 a massive round up of 'tramps and beggars' began. Many were sterilised. Between 1934 and 1945 between 320,000 and 350,000 men and women were compulsory sterilised.
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Describe Step 3: Concentration Camps
The burdens were being sent to concentration camps by 1936. A youth concentration camp was set up in 1937. In 1938 most burdens were sent to Buchenwald concentration camp. Many Germans welcomed this removal of what were seen as 'awkward customers'
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Describe Step 4: The Euthanasia Campaign
In 1939 the Nazis secretly began to exterminate the mentally ill in a euthanasia programme. German officials busied themselves calculating how much money&food had been saved by these killings&how to make better use of the hospital beds&buildings.
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What were the three ways the Nazi's killed in their euthanasia campaign?
By lethal injection, starvation and gas chambers (used carbon monoxide gas)
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Why did the euthanasia campaign come to an end? When?
In 1941 because of public protests but 72,000 people had been murdered before this time.
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What was the idea of Hashude?
Bremen in northern Germany carried out an experiment to try to make difficult families become useful members rather than burdens.Some of the citys worst families were placed in a camp of modern terrace houses.Here they could be controlled&'educated'
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What was the camp like at Hashude?
There were 84 family houses, a bathing area and a children's home. There was also an administration building with an observation cabin which controlled the only entrance and exit to the estate.
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What was life like for men on the estate?
They were made to work
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What was life like for women on the estate?
They were taught how to look after their children and had to keep a clean and orderly househol
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What was inspected daily at Hashude?
The houses.
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Where did children on the estate have to attend?
School
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What was prohibited at Hashude?
Alcohol
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What were the punishments on the estate? (2)
Extra drill and being locked up in a dark cell for up to three days with little/ no food.
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Who was sent to Hashude?
People who were unwilling to work, alcoholics, beggars, disturbers of community life, neglect of children or debt issues.
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How did a family leave Hashude estate?
They were released into normal society if they could show improvement - but if not they could be sent to a concentration camp. It was a last chance for 'asocial families'
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Did Hashude suceed?
18/84 families at there when it close were recorded as making no improvement but it was branded a failure due to cost, and opponents argued families couldn't be educated to behave correctly as bad characteristics were hereditary.
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Why did Hashude close down?
Because the war led to a shortage of houses - so it closed in July 1940 and became a normal housing estate.
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Card 2

Front

What was Hitler's 'answer' to solve the problems causing a 'weak' Germany?

Back

To create a national community (the Volk) - people would need to: 1. Be pure Aryans 2. Be physically and Mentally healthy 3. Be socially useful and 4. Welcome Nazism

Card 3

Front

In which two ways was Hitler going to achieve his creation of the 'Volk'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What would Hitler's result be?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Like many people in the early years of the twentieth century what did Hitler believe in?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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