History russia book 3 notes


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Establishment of the Communist state
1918-1920s
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What was NEP?
A set of more capitalistic policies imposed by lenin in March 1921
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What caused the introduction of NEP?
A rebellion by Kronstadt sailors, who were calling for 'Socialism without the Bolsheviks'
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How did Lenin describe the revolt and NEP respectively?
'A flash of lightning that lit up the real situation' and '1 step backwards, 2 steps forwards'
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What was the tax on all profits?
10%
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What percentage of businesses were state owned?
80%
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What policy meant farmers were encouraged to produce more grain?
50% was levied, rather than all the surplus
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What happened in May 1921 regarding trade?
An anglo-russian trade agreement was signed
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What were 2 negative effects of NEP?
Split the party between extremists like Trotsky, and more right-wing members such as Bukharin; and it massively reduced food prices, as Russia had lost too much industry witht he treaty of Brest-Litovsk
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Who were Nepmen?
Corrupt traders who bought and sold good from farms to cities at extortionate rates.
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Why was industry in a state of collapse?
75% of industry lost in treaty of Brest-Litovsk, and Nationalised Factories were often barely run, so the number of workers halved.
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What was Comintern?
An largely useless organisation run by Zinoviev that was founded to try and spark revolutions in other countries
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Why did the Communists see education as a priority?
It would allow them to 'brainwash' a new generation of Communists
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What changes were amde to schooling? (3 things)
Teachers were referred to as school workers, education became more practical, and taught the history of the communist party
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What was the Komsomol?
A youth organisation that allowed new members to be inducted into the party
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What happened to newspapers in 1917?
If the weren't Bolshevik, they were banned
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What happened to many Russian writers in 1922?
They were banished, to discourage dissent
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What happened before any media could be published?
It was censored (but under Lenin, this was generally fairly lax)
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Why was there a strong focus on cinema (punintended), street theatre and posters?
Most Russians were illiterate
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What were the Communist views on God?
They discouraged, but did not ban worship (they feared the consequences of forbidding it)
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What decree was made regarding children and religion?
It was made illegal to teach religion to children
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What was the famine of 1921-1922 used for regarding religion?
It was used as an excuse to justify looting churches.
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What was the Union of the Militant Godless?
A group of 'militant atheists' that published the Godless Magazine, and
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What was the commissariat of public enlightenment?
the department for changing soviet culture away from high art.
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What was socialist realism?
An art style which portrayed communism as idyllic.
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What was Agitprop?
The ministry for agitation and propaganda, which organised large amounts of propaganda by touring the country with mobile cinemas
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What did the party do regarding marriages and divorce?
They encouraged freer marriages and divorces
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In what way did this backfire?
70% of divorces were initiated by men, who abandoned their wives after they became pregnant
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What was guaranteed for female workers?
Maternity leave
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Why did working conditions worsen in some cases?
There were an excess of workers after the end of the civil war, so women were often forced from skilled into unskilled labour
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What was founded to give more oppurtunities for women?
A women's department of the sovnarkom
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What did this department focus on?
Practical help and social work
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How much did the percnetage of women in the party increase by between 1917 and 1928?
1917: 10% 1928: 12%
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Death of Lenin
And Stalin's takeover
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After Lenin died in 1924, what had he written in his will?
He had originally written that a committee should be founded including Stalin, Trotsky et al., but a revised version said Stalin was too power hungry
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Name 3 advantages Trotsky had over Stalin
He was an inspirational speaker, he had the support of the red army, and he had coordinated the Revolution and the Civil war
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Name 3 disadvantages Trotsky suffered
He suffered from attacks of fever that drained his strength, he was arrogant and refused to take part in political infighting, and he was a jew.
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Name 3 advantages Stalin had over Trotsky
He was politically cunning, he had control over party membership and he had middle of the road political views; he was not as extreme as Trotsky
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What were Trotsky's views on NEP?
That it should be abolished immediately in order to set up a true communist state
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What was Stalin's main aim in terms of policy?
Creating a stable communist state
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What did Stalin do to discredit Trotsky immediately after Lenin's death?
He told Trotsky the wrong day for the funeral, then at the funeral described himself as Lenin's disciple and implyed Trotsky couldn't be bothered to show
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Why was Stalin lucky regarding Lenin's will?
It contained criticisms of many bolsheviks, so it was supressed.
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Who did Stalin form an alliance with, and what did they do?
He formed an alliance with Kamanev and Zinoviev, who together voted against Trotsky having power of the red army
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Who did Stalin join forces with in 1926?
The more right wing side of the party, i.e. Bukharin. They then voted to expel Zinoviev and Kamenev from the politburo
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What was Stalin's final move?
He turned on Bukharin, and denounced NEP. In 1929, Stalin was uncontested leader on his 50th birthday
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was NEP?

Back

A set of more capitalistic policies imposed by lenin in March 1921

Card 3

Front

What caused the introduction of NEP?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How did Lenin describe the revolt and NEP respectively?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the tax on all profits?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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