History Revision Cards

Who Was Galen?
A Greek Doctor who worked in Ancient Rome.
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Whos ideas dominated in the 12th century?
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What was the Theory Of Four Humours?
Ancient Greeks thought that everyone had a mix of 4 humours in their body and when they were inbalanced it caused you to become ill.
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What were The Four Humours thought to be?
Blood, Phlegm, Black Bile, and Yellow Bile.
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What was Medical Training Like in the 12th Century?
Universities set up Medical Schools(where physicians were trained), most teaching was done through books and not practical experiments.
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What was the Theory Of The Opposites?
Galen came up with it, aimed to balance the 4 humours by giving the patient the 'opposite' of their symptoms. (e.g. eating hot peppers if you had phlegm - linked to water and cold)
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Who Treated The Sick in 1350?
Physicians(Passed Exams), Apothecaries(Had Training but no Medical Qualifications), Barber Surgeons(No Training), Monks & Nuns(Ran hospitals using Donations from church) and Housewife Physicians(cheapest and most accessible option.)
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What did Physicians do?
They observed a patients symptoms, consulted zodiac charts to help diagnose illness and figure out best time to bleed the patient(bloodletting) if necessary. Then they either treated them or sent them to Apothecaries or Barber Surgeons.
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What was The Black Death?
Most historians think it was the Bubonic Plague - Carried by Fleas living on black rats.
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What were the reasons people thought The Black Death was caused?
Religion(punishment from God for their sins); Astrology(position of certain planets); Miasma(bad air); Volcanoes; Four Humours; Outsiders(Strangers or Witches caused the disease)
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How did people try to avoid The Black Death?
Whipping eachother to show god how sorry they were; praying and fasting; carrying herbs and spices to avoid breathing in 'bad air'; not letting unknown people enter the town/village.
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What were the symptoms of The Black Death?
headache; fever and chills; vomiting, diarrohea and abdominal pain; swelling of the lymph glands into large lumps filled with pus.
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How did people treat The Black Death?
Praying & Holding lucky charms; Cutting open buboes to drain the pus; holding bread against the buboes and burying it; eating cool things and taking cold baths.
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Who was Vesalius and what did he do?
A Professor of Surgery(Padua University) and he proved that many of Galens ideas were not correct.
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What did William Harvey discover?
That Galens ideas about blood were wrong. - he found that veins carry only blood, which was pumped through the body by the heart.
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Name one way that Technology had a positive impact on Medicine.
Better Microscope Lenses - helped discover bacteria OR mechanical pumps - helped people understand that the human body worked like a machine OR The Printing Press - allowed ideas to be published.
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Why didn't discoveries during the Renaissance improve treatments or life expectancy?
Causes of Disease Still weren't understood; Ideas were slow to be accepted; Medical Teachings were still mainly based on Galen's teachings.
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Card 2


Whos ideas dominated in the 12th century?



Card 3


What was the Theory Of Four Humours?


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Card 4


What were The Four Humours thought to be?


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Card 5


What was Medical Training Like in the 12th Century?


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