History-liberal reforms

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who was charles booth?
a successful businessman and owner of liver pool shipping line,
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Why did charles booth start investigating into the works of the poor?
because he thought the reports of the poor were exaggerated.
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what did charles booth do?
owned shippig line, wrote info on poverty, worte poverty maps, all the pverty info was about london.
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when were the first 17 volumes of charles booths poverty info published?
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what did charles booth prove about poverty?
30% of londons population lived below poverty line, that the poor were not lazy.
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what impact did charles booths work have?
people believed his work because he was a respected businessman, so people know the truth they wanted to change it/
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who was seebohm rowntree?
commited social reformer, owned sweet company.
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what did seebohm rowntree do?
wrote 'poverty: a study of town life' inspired by 2 major case surveys carried out.
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when did seebohm rowntree do his work?
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what did seebohm rountree prove about poverty?
5% illness, illness of old age and wage earners, mainly because of large families.
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what impact did seebohm rowntrees work have?
awareness, friends with david lloyd george, suggested state should do more to protect young, also respected so taken seriously.
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who was john galt?
christian missionry
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what did john galt do
worked on missons with cab men, raised money, wrote manuscript about mission, photographed working class.
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when did john galt do his work?
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what did john galt prove about poverty?
showed working class were not lazy.
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what impact did john galts work have?
raised awareness.
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when did the liberal government come to power?
after the 1906 elections.
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by 1900 who was given the vote? what did this mean?
half the electorate were from the working class (no women) so the liberal and conservative parties began adopting policies which would attract the support of the wokring class. but both were still mainly midde and working class.
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What did trade unions want to achieve? what did they think would do this? what was set up to do this?
aims of better pay and working conditions, they thought having working class men in parliament would achieve this. in 1900 a labour representation committee was set up to get labour candidates elected.
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what problems did the industrial revolution bring on british society?
poor living, poor working conditions which spread diseases.
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who was the chancellor of the exxchequer and by when? what did he create?
david lloyd george by 1908, created new taxes to pay for the liberal policies and fought and defeated the house of lords over them
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what did winston churchil creat and when?
the unemplyment insurance system of 1911
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what did the 1834 poor law establish?
it established work houses where the able bodied poor would go if they were desperate to get very basic food and clothing.
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what was out door relief?
during the recession due to lack of space in workhouses food and money was given to the poor.
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after 1886 what changed about the poor law?
the sick recieved outdoor relief, were given free treatment in poor law hospitals, unemplyed given work by local authorities, old given outdoor relief, treatment in workhouses improved, poor kids treadted with sympathy and given some schooling
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why did the liberals introduce welfare reforms? apart from the fact that people in the army were poor and malnutrition so couldnt fight.
growth of trade unions worried politicians about revolts, DavidLG came from poor background, Roundtree booth and galt rasied awarness, more working class getting vote, germany was passing britain as great industrial power, germany introduced welfare.
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what reforms were introduced to help children and when?
free school meals 1906, free medicine inspections (1907), free medical treatment (1912).
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what issues were adressed in the children's charter and when was it released?
neglect, young offenders, safety and working conditions 1908
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describe the old age pension act and when was it released?
1908, gave poorest people over 70 a pension of 5 shillings a week, came from taxes from richer people in britain.
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how did people react to the old age pension act/
rich thought it reduced peoples independence, but people over 70 loved it.
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why is labour exchange act passed?
to help workers find better, permanent jobs, over 400 established over country.
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what did the national insurance act address and when was it passed?
1911, health insurance and unemplyment, though 50% of workers already had private insurance schemes, just 10% had it fr unemplyment so losing a job could plunge a fam into poverty
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describe health insurance
covered all workers earning under 160 a week, had to pay 4 pence a year to scheme. employer played 2 pence, taxation payed 2 pense. allowed workers to take sick leave, be paid 10 shillings 1st 13 weeks, 5 next 13 weeks
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in the 1890s what factors lead to unemployment?
population explosion, immigration (both foreign and domestic), skilled + unskilled looking =wages low.
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what did seasonal work mean?
men were laid off and because they hardly had enough to live on, they had no savings to fall back on. people were expected to save, but couldn't, so sickness and unemployment were feared so people retired as late as possible.
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difference between regulated and unregulated industry?
regulated=protected by government. unregulated=pay was low and working conditions were not protected by government e.g.. casual work and sweated trades.
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describe housing in areas where there was work.
scarce, overcrowded conditions, pop rose from 11m to 40m, large houses turned into flats tenents not fused about upkeep, many couldnt afford rent to got a rookie.
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describe sewer system.
street with ditch running through it, into which drains and sewers emptied. the ditch contained the only water the people in the streets had to drink. strong green colour, mud.
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describe charity for the poor.
many dedicated to elderly, destitute and children eg dr bernardos, salvation army. but many poor people believed accepting charity was just admitting defeat.
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what poverty had improved by the end of the 19th century?
wages higher, government regulations improved working conditions in factories, but still 1/3 lived in poverty.
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what was attached to help from poor law?
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why were pensions effective?
improved old peoples living conditions, and took away the fear that they might have to go back into the workhouse.
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why were the liberal reforms effective for children?
free school meals and medical treatment improved health. childrens charter adressed issues like neglect, young offenders, safty and working conditions.
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why was national insurance effective/
covered people on low (less then 160 a year) income.
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how did the labour exchange act help?
helped people to find better, more permanent jobs.
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why wern't pensions effective?
only took care of people over 70, and who had a low income.
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why wern't labour exchanges effective?
dependent on the people employed to look for the job.
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why wasn't national insurance effective?
50% had it in job, so didnt help if they lost it. 10% for unemplyment and children.
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Why did charles booth start investigating into the works of the poor?


because he thought the reports of the poor were exaggerated.

Card 3


what did charles booth do?


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Card 4


when were the first 17 volumes of charles booths poverty info published?


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Card 5


what did charles booth prove about poverty?


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